Polypterus senegalus, Gray bichir : fisheries

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Polypterus senegalus Cuvier, 1829

Gray bichir
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Image of Polypterus senegalus (Gray bichir)
Polypterus senegalus
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klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes(Marga, Jenis) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Polypteriformes (Bichirs) > Polypteridae (Bichirs)
Etymology: Polypterus: Greek, poly = a lot of + Greek, pteron = wing, fin (Ref. 45335);  senegalus: Named after M. d'Arnaud, collector of the two specimens (Ref. 1688).  More on author: Cuvier.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; air tawar dasar (demersal); pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19; potamodromous (Ref. 51243).   Tropical; 25°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060); 16°N - 2°S, 17°W - 37°E

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Africa: subspecies Polypterus senegalus senegalus known from West Africa, in Senegal, Gambia, Niger, Volta and Chad basins (Ref. 2835, 3188, 81263), up to Nile River basin (Ref. 2835, 3188) and lakes Turkana (Ref. 3188) and Albert (Ref. 41590, 48922, 48960); subspecies Polypterus senegalus meridionalis known from middle and upper Congo River basin (Ref. 2835, 3188, 4910, 45434).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm ?, range 15 - 23 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 3188); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 207.00 g (Ref. 3013)

deskripsi pendek Morfologi | Morfometrik

Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 8 - 11; Duri dubur 14-17; vertebrata, bertulang belakang: 53 - 59. Diagnosis: Polypterus senegalus is characterized by jaws of equal length or an upper jaw slightly longer than lower jaw and a pectoral fin not reaching the first dorsal ray (Ref. 2756, 2835, 42908, 43035, 81263).

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

This species inhabits marginal swamps and freshwater lagoons (Ref. 3066) and it appears to favor sheltered inshore habitats (Ref. 3034); it inhabits the muddy regions at the sides of rivers and swampy waters, where it lies quiet or glides about with snake-like movements (Ref. 49805). During the hottest hours of the day, it comes to the surface just on the outer edge of the vegetation, and it goes back to the bottom when disturbed (Ref. 45962). It feeds on insects, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs and fishes (Ref. 4903, Ref. 28714). Polypterus senegalus senegalus is mainly insectivorous (Ref. 367). Longevity of Polypterus senegalus in captivity can be 34 years and more (Ref. 48954). Larval fish 1.1-3.8 cm SL were found in papyrus root mat and juveniles up to 10 cm SL retaining external gills were found in fringing water hyacinth. Feeds mainly on fishes (Ref. 9695), insects, crustaceans, mollusks, frogs as well as on plant fragments and seeds.

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

In Polypterus senegalus courtship starts with a series of leaps from the surface by usually only one of the pair at a time, followed by a slow descent through the water. After a while the male stays very close to the female and at times the female will remain motionless in the water and the male will come up to her from behind and nudge her with sidewise movements of his head. The enlarged and swollen anal fin of the male is folded in a cup-like fashion and is used to brush the female (Ref. 42791). No nest is constructed, but the eggs are laid a few at a time throughout the thick vegetation (Ref. 42791). The larvae, which move about with the male parent in a dense school, are provided with accessory gills and appear very salamander-like (Ref. 42791).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator | mitra

Gosse, J.P. and J. Daget, 2003. Polypteridae. p. 101-112. In D. Paugy, C. Lévêque and G.G Teugels (eds.) The fresh and brackish water fishes of West Africa Volume 1. Coll. faune et flore tropicales 40. Institut de recherche de développement, Paris, France, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France and Musée royal de l'Afrique Central, Tervuren, Belgium, 457p. (Ref. 81263)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 123251)

  kurang bimbang (LC) ; Date assessed: 07 June 2019

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: komersial
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

informasi lanjut

Nama-nama umum
Sinonim (persamaan)
metabolisme
Pemangsa
Ekotoksikologi
Reproduksi, perkembang biakan
Kematangan
Pemijahan
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
telur-telur
pekembangan telor
Umur / Saiz
Pertumbuhan
panjang-berat
panjang-panjang
ukuran frekuensi
Morfometrik
Morfologi
Larva
Dinamika larva
pemulihan
Kelimpahan
BRUVS
Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Nutrients
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | semak peneliti ikan | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Marga, Jenis | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genom, Nukleotida | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Akuarium publik | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: pergi, Cari | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5002   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00407 (0.00242 - 0.00685), b=2.99 (2.84 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179):  sangat rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum lebih dari 14 tahun (tmax=34; Fec < 1,000).
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 171 [107, 300] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.3 [0.9, 2.0] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.6 [16.6, 18.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.227 [0.107, 0.502] g/100g ; Selenium = 95.7 [43.0, 235.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.7 [5.7, 26.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.47 [1.09, 1.99] mg/100g (wet weight);