Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut; air tawar; payau dasar (demersal); katadromus (ruaya dari air tawar ke laut) (Ref. 46888); kisaran kedalaman 10 - ? m (Ref. 40448). Tropical; 32°N - 35°S, 22°E - 136°W
Indo-Pacific: east coast of Africa, including Madagascar, Seychelles, Rodriguez; north to Sri Lanka and India (except Bay of Bengal), Andaman and Nicobar Islands, east to Indonesia, China, the Philippines, Japan, Marshall and Tuamoto islands, Melanesia and Polynesia (Ref. 2830). Distribution includes the Red Sea (Ref. 84159) and Persian Gulf (Ref. 66734).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm 23.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 4967); common length : 26.0 cm SL jantan/; (Ref. 4967)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 4 - 5; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 8-9; Duri dubur 3; Sirip dubur lunak: 8 - 10. Greenish-grey dorsally; flanks and abdomen silvery; fins grey or bluish with dusky margins and may appear yellowish at base (Ref. 9812). Pectoral with golden base, and perhaps a dark spot (Ref. 9812). With rudimentary axillary scale.
Occur in shallow coastal waters, and from brackish water to freshwater regions of rivers (Ref. 41299). Form schools (Ref. 40448); in larger aggregations during spawning, which takes place at sea (Ref. 2830). Feed on small algae, diatoms, forams, benthic polychaetes, crustaceans, mollusks, organic matter and detritus; fry feed on copepods and floating algae (Ref. 40448). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Caught mainly during the spawning season and is sold fresh; the roe is highly appreciated.
Nakabo, T., 2002. Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species, English edition I. Tokai University Press, Japan, pp v-866. (Ref. 41299)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
ancaman kepada manusia
Perikanan: komersial; Budidaya air: komersial; Ikan buruan: ya
mitraGambarStamps, Coins Misc.Suara-suaraCiguateraKecepatanTipe renangArea insangOtolithsOtakPenglihatan / visi
muat turun XML
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29, mean 28 (based on 810 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00962 - 0.01573), b=2.96 (2.92 - 3.00), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.26 se; Based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278
): Rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 4.5 - 14 tahun (K=0.10).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .