Leucaspius delineatus, Belica : aquarium

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Leucaspius delineatus (Heckel 1843)

Belica
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Leucaspius delineatus
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Classification / Names Tên thường gặp | Các synonym ( Các tên trùng) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Cypriniformes (Carps) > Leuciscidae (Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Leucaspius: Greek, leukaspis, leukaspidis = armed with a white shield (Ref. 45335);  delineatus: Leucaspius = white Aspius; delineatus = without lateral line.  More on author: Heckel.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Sinh thái học

; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ Tầng nổi; pH range: 6.0 - 10.0; dH range: ? - 15; di cư trong nước ngọt (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu 0 - 1 m (Ref. 27368).   Temperate; 2°C - 32°C (Ref. 41592); 64°N - 38°N, 1°E - 60°E

Sự phân bố Các nước | Các khu vực của FAO | Các hệ sinh thái | Những lần xuất hiện | Point map | Những chỉ dẫn | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: From Lower Rhine and northern Germany eastward to southern Baltic basin; Black Se basin south to Rioni drainage, northern and western Caspian basin (south to Kura drainage); Aegean Sea basin (from Maritsa to Nestos). Absent in Italy, Adriatic basin, Great Britain and Scandinavia (except southernmost Sweden). Widely introduced in France, upper Rhine drainage and locally in Great Britain and Swiitzerland. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).

Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 59043); common length : 6.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 556); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 2.00 các năm (Ref. 556)

Short description Hình thái học | Sinh trắc học

Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 2 - 3; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 7-9; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 3; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 10 - 13; Động vật có xương sống: 36 - 42. Diagnosed from other cyprinids in central and eastern Europe by having incomplete lateral line with about 8-12 pored scales, keel covered by scales between pelvic origin and anus, mouth superior, and 11-13½ branched anal rays (Ref. 59043). A small fish with large silvery scales and an inconspicuous intense silvery band along each side. Lateral line incomplete, sometimes absent, with perforated scales. Anal fin longer than dorsal fin. Mouth turns upwards. The lower edge of the body between the pelvic fins and the vent forms a sharp keel. The scales are very loosely attached and fall away if the fish is handled. Also Ref. 40476.

Sinh học     Tự điển (thí dụ epibenthic)

Inhabits lowland riverine habitats especially oxbows and other water bodies only connected to rivers during floods. Often encountered in ponds, steppe lakes and small water bodies not connected to rivers (Ref. 59043). Occurs in large schools which are most numerous in autumn. Found between weeds in shallow pools and creeks, shallow lakes, peat and clay excavations and canals. It is exposed to the stormy flow of water (in spring, autumn and winter), but usually choose quite places like small bays, plots behind bottom stones extending out of water and concrete foundations of bridges. In autumn, the schools of fish keep to the surface and rarely go to the pelagic zone. Towards winter, the schools break up and the number of fish per unit of river square decreases rapidly (Ref. 27674); they spend the winter in deeper waters (Ref. 41592). Feeds on phytoplankton and zooplankton and on flying insects (Ref. 27368). Spawns among vegetation (Ref. 30578). Aquarium keeping: at least 10 individuals; minimum aquarium size 100 cm; not recommended for home aquariums (Ref. 51539). Scales were utilized for production of Essence d'Orient, which was used for coating artificial pearls. Locally threatened due to draining of wetlands. Reaches up to about 9 cm SL (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior Chín muồi sinh dục | Sự tái sinh sản | Đẻ trứng | Các trứng | Sự sinh sản | Ấu trùng

Territorial males clean the spawning sites and guard the eggs which are attached in strings around roots, reeds, aquatic vegetation or any material drifting on the water surface (Ref. 59043). When males tend the clutch, which is usually located on the stem of a water plant, they provide the clutch with fresh water by nudging the water plant. In addition, they spread an anti-bacterial fluid over the eggs (Ref. 1672). If possible, some fish will enter streams for spawning.

Main reference Upload your references | Các tài liệu tham khảo | Người điều phối | Người cộng tác

Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Bratislava, 52/Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Các nghề cá: không ích lợi (thú vị); Bể nuôi cá: Bể cá công cộng
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Age/Size
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Length-length
Length-frequencies
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Các nguồn internet

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Các cơ sở dữ liệu quốc gia | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Bể cá công cộng | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Cây Đời sống | Wikipedia(Go, tìm) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Tạp chí Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00397 - 0.01205), b=3.12 (2.97 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179):  Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (K=0.248; tmax=2.0; Fec=500).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .