Leucaspius delineatus, Belica : aquarium

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Leucaspius delineatus (Heckel 1843)

Belica
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Leucaspius delineatus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Leuciscidae (Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Leucaspius: Greek, leukaspis, leukaspidis = armed with a white shield (Ref. 45335);  delineatus: Leucaspius = white Aspius; delineatus = without lateral line.  More on author: Heckel.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 大洋性; pH range: 6.0 - 10.0; dH range: ? - 15; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 1 m (Ref. 27368).   溫帶; 2°C - 32°C (Ref. 41592); 64°N - 38°N, 1°E - 60°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: From Lower Rhine and northern Germany eastward to southern Baltic basin; Black Se basin south to Rioni drainage, northern and western Caspian basin (south to Kura drainage); Aegean Sea basin (from Maritsa to Nestos). Absent in Italy, Adriatic basin, Great Britain and Scandinavia (except southernmost Sweden). Widely introduced in France, upper Rhine drainage and locally in Great Britain and Swiitzerland. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
歐洲與亞洲。 透過管道系統進入北歐之內散佈開了。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群).

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 6.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大年龄: 2.00 年 (Ref. 556)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 2 - 3; 背的软条 (总数): 7-9; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 10 - 13; 脊椎骨: 36 - 42. Diagnosed from other cyprinids in central and eastern Europe by having incomplete lateral line with about 8-12 pored scales, keel covered by scales between pelvic origin and anus, mouth superior, and 11-13½ branched anal rays (Ref. 59043). A small fish with large silvery scales and an inconspicuous intense silvery band along each side. Lateral line incomplete, sometimes absent, with perforated scales. Anal fin longer than dorsal fin. Mouth turns upwards. The lower edge of the body between the pelvic fins and the vent forms a sharp keel. The scales are very loosely attached and fall away if the fish is handled. Also Ref. 40476.
一种小的鱼具有大的银色鳞片与一条不明显的密集银色的条纹沿着两边。 侧线不完全的, 有时不存在, 藉由有排孔的鳞片。 臀鳍长度超过背鳍。 嘴变向上的。 在腹鳍与排泄孔之间的身体的下面边缘形成一个锐利的龙骨脊。 鳞片非常松弛地被附上而且秋天之久,如果鱼被触摸。 也参考文献 40476.

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits lowland riverine habitats especially oxbows and other water bodies only connected to rivers during floods. Often encountered in ponds, steppe lakes and small water bodies not connected to rivers (Ref. 59043). Occurs in large schools which are most numerous in autumn. Found between weeds in shallow pools and creeks, shallow lakes, peat and clay excavations and canals. It is exposed to the stormy flow of water (in spring, autumn and winter), but usually choose quite places like small bays, plots behind bottom stones extending out of water and concrete foundations of bridges. In autumn, the schools of fish keep to the surface and rarely go to the pelagic zone. Towards winter, the schools break up and the number of fish per unit of river square decreases rapidly (Ref. 27674); they spend the winter in deeper waters (Ref. 41592). Feeds on phytoplankton and zooplankton and on flying insects (Ref. 27368). Spawns among vegetation (Ref. 30578). Aquarium keeping: at least 10 individuals; minimum aquarium size 100 cm; not recommended for home aquariums (Ref. 51539). Scales were utilized for production of Essence d'Orient, which was used for coating artificial pearls. Locally threatened due to draining of wetlands. Reaches up to about 9 cm SL (Ref. 59043).

形成大群的鱼群最多的秋天时。 在水浅的水池与小溪,浅的湖泊,泥炭洞穴与管中发现在杂草之间了。 它是暴露于水 (在春天, 秋天与冬天) 的猛烈的水流, 但是通常选择平静的地方像小海湾, 计划翻译延伸到水与桥基外面的在后底部的石头。 秋天时,鱼群保持在水面而且很少地去到大洋性区域。 快到冬天时,鱼群消失与快速地鱼的数目河中每单位面积减少;(参考文献 27674) 他们在较深的水域中度过冬天。 (参考文献 41592) 吃浮游植物与浮游动物与吃会飞的昆虫。 (参考文献 27368) 繁殖发生于四月到五月, 在植物之中。 产卵被由雄鱼保卫.(参考文献 30578) 水族馆保持: 至少 10个个体; 水族馆最小体型 100 公分; 不向那边推荐家庭的水族箱鱼。 (参考文献 51539)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Territorial males clean the spawning sites and guard the eggs which are attached in strings around roots, reeds, aquatic vegetation or any material drifting on the water surface (Ref. 59043). When males tend the clutch, which is usually located on the stem of a water plant, they provide the clutch with fresh water by nudging the water plant. In addition, they spread an anti-bacterial fluid over the eggs (Ref. 1672). If possible, some fish will enter streams for spawning.歐洲與亞洲。 透過管道系統進入北歐之內散佈開了。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群).

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Bratislava, 52/Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 没有兴趣; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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特别资料

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网络资源

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank(基因组, 核苷酸) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公众的水族馆 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia(转至, 搜寻) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00397 - 0.01205), b=3.12 (2.97 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.248; tmax=2.0; Fec=500).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .