Leucaspius delineatus, Belica : aquarium

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Leucaspius delineatus (Heckel 1843)

Belica
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Leucaspius delineatus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Leuciscidae (Minnows) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Leucaspius: Greek, leukaspis, leukaspidis = armed with a white shield (Ref. 45335);  delineatus: Leucaspius = white Aspius; delineatus = without lateral line.  More on author: Heckel.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 大洋性; pH range: 6.0 - 10.0; dH range: ? - 15; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 1 m (Ref. 27368).   溫帶; 2°C - 32°C (Ref. 41592); 64°N - 38°N, 1°E - 60°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: From Lower Rhine and northern Germany eastward to southern Baltic basin; Black Se basin south to Rioni drainage, northern and western Caspian basin (south to Kura drainage); Aegean Sea basin (from Maritsa to Nestos). Absent in Italy, Adriatic basin, Great Britain and Scandinavia (except southernmost Sweden). Widely introduced in France, upper Rhine drainage and locally in Great Britain and Swiitzerland. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
歐洲與亞洲。 透過管道系統進入北歐之內散佈開了。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群).

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 6.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 最大年齡: 2.00 年 (Ref. 556)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 2 - 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 7-9; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 10 - 13; 脊椎骨: 36 - 42. Diagnosed from other cyprinids in central and eastern Europe by having incomplete lateral line with about 8-12 pored scales, keel covered by scales between pelvic origin and anus, mouth superior, and 11-13½ branched anal rays (Ref. 59043). A small fish with large silvery scales and an inconspicuous intense silvery band along each side. Lateral line incomplete, sometimes absent, with perforated scales. Anal fin longer than dorsal fin. Mouth turns upwards. The lower edge of the body between the pelvic fins and the vent forms a sharp keel. The scales are very loosely attached and fall away if the fish is handled. Also Ref. 40476.
一種小的魚具有大的銀色鱗片與一條不明顯的密集銀色的條紋沿著兩邊。 側線不完全的, 有時不存在, 藉由有排孔的鱗片。 臀鰭長度超過背鰭。 嘴變向上的。 在腹鰭與排洩孔之間的身體的下面邊緣形成一個銳利的龍骨脊。 鱗片非常鬆弛地被附上而且秋天之久,如果魚被觸摸。 也參考文獻 40476.

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits lowland riverine habitats especially oxbows and other water bodies only connected to rivers during floods. Often encountered in ponds, steppe lakes and small water bodies not connected to rivers (Ref. 59043). Occurs in large schools which are most numerous in autumn. Found between weeds in shallow pools and creeks, shallow lakes, peat and clay excavations and canals. It is exposed to the stormy flow of water (in spring, autumn and winter), but usually choose quite places like small bays, plots behind bottom stones extending out of water and concrete foundations of bridges. In autumn, the schools of fish keep to the surface and rarely go to the pelagic zone. Towards winter, the schools break up and the number of fish per unit of river square decreases rapidly (Ref. 27674); they spend the winter in deeper waters (Ref. 41592). Feeds on phytoplankton and zooplankton and on flying insects (Ref. 27368). Spawns among vegetation (Ref. 30578). Aquarium keeping: at least 10 individuals; minimum aquarium size 100 cm; not recommended for home aquariums (Ref. 51539). Scales were utilized for production of Essence d'Orient, which was used for coating artificial pearls. Locally threatened due to draining of wetlands. Reaches up to about 9 cm SL (Ref. 59043).

形成大群的魚群最多的秋天時。 在水淺的水池與小溪,淺的湖泊,泥炭洞穴與管中發現在雜草之間了。 它是暴露於水 (在春天, 秋天與冬天) 的猛烈的水流, 但是通常選擇平靜的地方像小海灣, 計畫翻譯延伸到水與橋基外面的在後底部的石頭。 秋天時,魚群保持在水面而且很少地去到大洋性區域。 快到冬天時,魚群消失與快速地魚的數目河中每單位面積減少;(參考文獻 27674) 他們在較深的水域中度過冬天。 (參考文獻 41592) 吃浮游植物與浮游動物與吃會飛的昆蟲。 (參考文獻 27368) 繁殖發生於四月到五月, 在植物之中。 產卵被由雄魚保衛.(參考文獻 30578) 水族館保持: 至少 10個個體; 水族館最小體型 100 公分; 不向那邊推薦家庭的水族箱魚。 (參考文獻 51539)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Territorial males clean the spawning sites and guard the eggs which are attached in strings around roots, reeds, aquatic vegetation or any material drifting on the water surface (Ref. 59043). When males tend the clutch, which is usually located on the stem of a water plant, they provide the clutch with fresh water by nudging the water plant. In addition, they spread an anti-bacterial fluid over the eggs (Ref. 1672). If possible, some fish will enter streams for spawning.歐洲與亞洲。 透過管道系統進入北歐之內散佈開了。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群).

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Bratislava, 52/Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 沒有興趣; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00692 (0.00397 - 0.01205), b=3.12 (2.97 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 4.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.248; tmax=2.0; Fec=500).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .