Macropodus opercularis, Paradisefish : aquarium

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Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus 1758)

Paradisefish
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Macropodus opercularis
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Anabantiformes (Gouramies, snakeheads) > Osphronemidae (Gouramies) > Macropodusinae
Etymology: Macropodus: Greek, makros = great + Greek, pous, podos = foot (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 大洋性; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 19.   熱帶; 16°C - 26°C (Ref. 1672); 30°N - 20°N, 102°E - 122°E

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Asia: China, from Yangtze basin to the south, on Hainan Island, in Taiwan, north Viet Nam; introduced to the tropical and subtropical world (Ref. 42924). Very popular with aquarists and has been widely transported around the world.
亞洲: 中國, 從長江流域到南方, 在海南島上, 在台灣, 越南北方部; 引進了熱帶與亞熱帶的世界。 (參考文獻 42924) 非常受水族業者的歡迎而且已經在全世界廣泛地被傳送。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.7 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 43281); common length : 5.5 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 12193)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11 - 17; 背的软条 (总数): 5-10; 臀棘 7-22; 臀鳍软条: 9 - 15; 脊椎骨: 27 - 29. Caudal fin forked, both lobes elongate in males (Ref. 559), with filamentous extension in each lobe (Ref. 43281); lower margin of preorbital sharply serrated (Ref. 559); conspicuous dark brown opercular spot with whitish posterior margin (margin red in life); body with 7-11 bold, dark bars on pale yellowish background in preserved specimens (blue bars on reddish background in life); dark stripe crossing eye connecting opercular spot with eye; top of head and predorsal body with dark spots; posterior tip or margin of scales on body not darker than scales (Ref. 42924).
尾鳍分岔, 双叶在雄性 (参考文献 559) 中延长, 在每个叶中有丝状的延长;(参考文献 43281) 眶前骨的下缘锐利地锯齿状的;(参考文献 559) 显着的深褐色的鳃盖斑点有微白色的后缘;(边缘红色的活着时) 在保存的标本中的在灰白的淡黄色的背景上的身体有 7-11 显着又深色的横带;(在淡红的背景上的蓝色的横带活着时) 深色的斑纹横越用眼连接鳃盖斑点的眼; 头顶与前背的身体有深色的斑点; 在身体上的后顶端或鳞片的边缘不颜色更深鳞片。 (参考文献 42924)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults inhabit any kind of lowland habitats from heterogeneous structured margins or backwaters of large rivers to small streams and irrigation channels on farmland (Ref. 42924). Can colonize stagnant water bodies with very low oxygen content (air breather). Found in streams, paddy fields and ditches (Ref. 5258). Feed on small aquatic animals including small fish. First ornamental fish to be brought to Europe (France 1869, Germany 1876) after the goldfish (Ref. 13371). Males will fight each other (Ref. 1672). Aquarium keeping: minimum aquarium size 80 cm (Ref. 51539).

在农地上栖息于来自各种结构边缘或对小的溪流大河的洄水区与灌溉峡道的任何类型的低地栖息地。 (参考文献 42924) 能移殖至污浊的水体具有非常低溶氧量 (呼吸空气的鱼类). 发现于溪流,稻田与沟渠了。 (参考文献 5258) 吃小的水生动物包括小鱼。 第一个观赏鱼被带到欧洲 (法国 1869, 德国 1876) 在金鱼之后.(参考文献 13371) 会彼此争斗的雄性.(参考文献 1672) 水族馆保持: 水族馆最小体型 80 公分.(参考文献 51539)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

The species is a bubble-nest builder; the male swims to the surface, draws a little air into his mouth and envelops it in a film of saliva thereby forming bubbles; upon building the nest, the male drives the female towards it; female spawns then male follows; male picks up the fertilized eggs in his mouth and pushes one by one into each bubble of the nest; male guards eggs until hatching (Ref. 5258). Produces up to 500 eggs (Ref. 1672).亞洲: 中國, 從長江流域到南方, 在海南島上, 在台灣, 越南北方部; 引進了熱帶與亞熱帶的世界。 (參考文獻 42924) 非常受水族業者的歡迎而且已經在全世界廣泛地被傳送。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Freyhof, J. and F. Herder, 2002. Review of the paradise fishes of the genus Macropodus in Vietnam, with description of two species from Vietnam and southern China (Perciformes: Osphronemidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 13(2):147-167. (Ref. 42924)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 02 September 2010

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 没有兴趣; 水族馆: 商业性
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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.00668 - 0.04524), b=3.01 (2.78 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.55 se; based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  高度, 族群倍增时间少于 15个月 (tm<1; Fec=100-500 times 6-12 spawning events).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .