Phoxinus phoxinus, Eurasian minnow : fisheries, aquarium, bait

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Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Eurasian minnow
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Image of Phoxinus phoxinus (Eurasian minnow)
Phoxinus phoxinus
Picture by Sediva, A.

التصنيف / Names الأسماء الشائعة | مرادفات | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

شعاعيات الزعانف > Cypriniformes (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Phoxinus: Greek, phoxinos = certain river fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range البيئة

; المياه العذبة; مياه مخلوطة القاع; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 10 - 20; سمكة نهرية (Ref. 51243).   Temperate; 2°C - 20°C (Ref. 1672); 73°N - 37°N, 10°W - 179°E

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Eurasia: basins of Atlantic, North and Baltic Seas, Arctic and northern Pacific Ocean, from Garonne (France) eastward to Anadyr and Amur drainages and Korea; Ireland (possibly introduced), Great Britain northward to 58°N. Scandinavia and Russia northernmost extremity, Rhône drainage. Recorded from upper and middle Volga and Ural drainages, Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan) and upper Syr-Darya drainage (Aral basin), but else identifications need verification. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction. Several species are confused under Phoxinus phoxinus.

Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر

Maturity: Lm 5.1, range 5 - 5.8 cm
Max length : 14.0 cm TL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 556); common length : 7.0 cm TL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 556); العمر: 11 سنين (Ref. 59043)

وصف مختصر الوصف الخارجي | قياسات المظهر الخارجي

الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 3; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 6-8; شوكة شرجية 3; أشعه شرجية لينه: 6 - 8; فقرات: 38 - 40. Diagnosed from its congeners in Europe by having lateral line usually reaching beyond anal fin base, a midlateral row of vertically elongated blotches whose depth is about 1/3-1/2 of body depth at same position, often fused in a midlateral stripe (in preserved individuals), caudal peduncle depth 2.6-3.1 times in its length, patches of breast scales separated by unscaled area or (rarely) connected anteriorly by 1-2 rows of scales, snout length 29-34% HL ( 1.1-1.4 times eye diameter), and anal fin origin in front of base of last dorsal ray (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).

أحياء     المصطلحات (على سبيل المثال epibenthic)

Gregarious (Ref. 2196). Found in a wide range of cold and well oxygenated habitats from small, fast-flowing streams to large Nordic lowland rivers and from small upland lakes to large oligotrophic lakes. Usually occurs in association with salmonid fishes (Ref. 59043). Feeds on algae, plant debris (in rivers), mollusks, crustaceans and insects (Ref. 30578). Spawns over clean gravel areas in flowing water or on wave-washed shores of lakes. Overwinters in coarse substrate or in deep pools with low current (Ref. 59043). Migrates upstream for spawning in shallow gravel areas. Important laboratory fish, for research on sensory organs of fishes. Mean maximum age is 6 years (Ref. 41616). Locally threatened due to pollution and excessive stocking of species of Salmo (Ref. 59043).

Life cycle and mating behavior النضج | التكاثر | وضع البيض | بيض | الخصوبة | Larvae

Males and females form school separately and arrive on the spawning site at differen times. Spawn over clean gravel areas in flowing water or on wave-washed shores of lakes. Deposit eggs in shallow water on sand or gravel bottom which hatch in 4-5 days at 18°C. Females lay sticky eggs deep into clean gravel (Ref. 59043).

المرجع الرئيسي Upload your references | مراجع | المنظم | المتعاونين

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر للأنسان

  Potential pest (Ref. 13686)





استخدامات بشرية

مصائد: غير مهمة تجارياً; حوض مائي: تجاري; طعم: usually
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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مصادر علي الأنترنت

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00692 - 0.00912), b=3.12 (3.08 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
مستوى غذائي (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
المرونه (Ref. 120179):  وسيط, الحد الزمني الأدني لتضاعف عدد أفراد المجتمع 1.4-4.4 سنة (tm=1-6; tmax=13; fec=200).
عرضة للخطر (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
فئة السعر (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.