Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate)
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Cynoscion: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, skion, skiaina = barbel, red mullet (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino; salmastro demersale; oceanodromo (Ref. 51243); distribuzione batimetrica 10 - 26 m (Ref. 54407). Subtropical; 17°C - 27°C (Ref. 54461); 47°N - 27°N, 82°W - 59°W
Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to northern Florida, USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 14 - 22.5 cm
Max length : 98.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 40637); common length : 50.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 3702); peso massimo pubblicato: 8.9 kg (Ref. 40637)
Spine dorsali (totale): 11; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 25-29; Spine anali 2; Raggi anali molli: 11 - 13. Body greenish grey above and silvery below, back with small spots forming undulating dotted lines. Pelvic fins and anal fin yellowish other fins pale, sometimes with a yellowish tinge. Inside of opercle dark, visible externally. Mouth large, oblique, lower jaw projecting. Upper jaw with a pair of large canine-like teeth at tip. Chin without barbels or pores. Snout with only 1 marginal pore. Gas bladder with a pair of nearly straight, horn-like appendages. Soft portion of dorsal fin covered with small scales up to 1/2 of fin height (Ref 51721).
Occurs usually in shallow coastal waters over sand and sandy mud bottoms. Juveniles are euryhaline. During summer the fish move to their nursery and feeding grounds in river estuaries. Feeds mainly on crustaceans and fishes. Oviparous, with high fecundity (Ref. 54406). Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Pesca: commerciale; Pesce da pesca sportiva: si; Acquario: Acquari pubblici
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.2 - 24.9, mean 12.7 (based on 172 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (K=0.26-0.3; Fec = 45,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .