Pomatomus saltatrix, Bluefish : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, bait

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Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766)

Bluefish
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Pomatomus saltatrix   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Pomatomus saltatrix (Bluefish)
Pomatomus saltatrix
Picture by Wirtz, P.

Classification / Names Tên thường gặp | Các synonym ( Các tên trùng) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Lớp phụ (Subclass) cá vây tia > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Pomatomidae (Bluefishes)
Etymology: Pomatomus: Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum + Greek, tomos = portion (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Sinh thái học

; Biển; Thuộc về nước lợ; Ở đại duơng, biển (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu 0 - 200 m (Ref. 54708).   Subtropical; 45°N - 44°S, 180°W - 180°E

Sự phân bố Các nước | Các khu vực của FAO | Các hệ sinh thái | Những lần xuất hiện | Point map | Những chỉ dẫn | Faunafri

Circumglobal: In tropical to subtropical waters; except the eastern Pacific (Ref. 33390). Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to South Africa, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, Madeira, and the Canary Islands. Western Atlantic: Canada and Bermuda to Argentina (Ref. 7251). Indian Ocean: along the coast of East Africa, Madagascar, southern Oman, southwest India, the Malay Peninsula, and Western Australia (Ref. 11441). Southwest Pacific: Australia except the Northern Territory, and New Zealand (Ref. 11441). Absent from eastern Pacific and northwest Pacific. Barely entering the Western Central Pacific region. Records from the Northern Territory, Australia and from Indonesia appear to be erroneous (Ref. 9860). Occurrence in Taiwan (Ref. 5193) and Hawaii (Ref. 4517) need verification.

Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age

Maturity: Lm 30.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 130 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 11441); common length : 60.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 3482); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: 14.4 kg (Ref. 4699); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 9 các năm (Ref. 6845)

Short description Hình thái học | Sinh trắc học

Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 8 - 9; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 23-28; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 2-3; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 23 - 27. Jaw teeth prominent, sharp, compressed, in a single series. Two dorsal fins, the first short and low, with 7 or 8 feeble spines connected by a membrane. Back greenish, sides and belly silvery (Ref. 9860).

Sinh học     Tự điển (thí dụ epibenthic)

Occur in oceanic and coastal waters (Ref. 26340). They are most common along surf beaches and rock headlands in clean, high energy waters, although adults can also be found in estuaries and into brackish water (Ref. 6492). Small fish may be found in shallow coastal waters at least 2 m depth (Ref. 9563), in schools pursuing and attacking small fishes (Ref. 9626). Adults are in loose groups, often attacking shoals of mullets or other fishes and destroying numbers apparently far in excess of feeding requirements (Ref. 9860). Feed on other fish (Ref. 5377), crustaceans and cephalopods (Ref. 47377). Associated with sharks and billfishes (Ref. 26340). Voracious and aggressive (Ref. 9626), reported to bite when handled. Migrate to warmer water during winter and to cooler water in summer (Ref. 9987). Popular game fish (Ref. 6638). Good food fish; marketed mostly fresh (Ref. 9860), but also dried or salted (Ref. 5284), and frozen (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior Chín muồi sinh dục | Sự tái sinh sản | Đẻ trứng | Các trứng | Sự sinh sản | Ấu trùng

Fecundity varies from 400,000 to 2,000,000 eggs depending on the size of the individual (ranging from 370,000 in a 31 cm fish to 1,240,000 in a 54 cm fish) (Ref. 27695). Tailor are serial spawners (Ref. 6390).

Main reference Upload your references | Các tài liệu tham khảo | Người điều phối | Người cộng tác

Dooley, J.K., 1990. Pomatomidae. p. 721-722. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 9986)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Dễ bị tổn thương, xem Sách đỏ của IUCN (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 07 July 2014

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 27695)





Human uses

Các nghề cá: tính thương mại cao; Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Tính thương mại; cá để chơi: đúng; mồi: usually
FAO(Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Sản xuất; Các nghề cá: Sản xuất, species profile; publication : search) | FishSource | Biển chung quanh ta

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 8.4 - 27.5, mean 21.1 (based on 1273 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00757 - 0.01320), b=2.98 (2.90 - 3.06), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179):  Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (K=0.10-0.2; tm=2; tmax=9; Fec=1 million).
Prior r = 0.67, 95% CL = 0.44 - 1.01, Based on 7 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.