分類 / Names
共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Perca: Greek, perke = perch, a fish without identificaction (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の 底生の; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 8 - 12; 昇流魚 (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 1 - 30 m (Ref. 9988), usually 3 - 4 m (Ref. 55947). Temperate; 10°C - 22°C (Ref. 1672); 74°N - 38°N, 91°W - 168°E
Eurasia: throughout Europe to northernmost extremity of Scandinavia, except Iberian Peninsula, central Italy, and Adriatic basin; Aegean Sea basin in Matriza and from Struma to Aliakmon drainages; Aral Sea basin; Siberia in rivers draining the Arctic Ocean eastward to Kolyma. Widely introduced. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm 16.8, range 11 - 23.4 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 59043); common length : 25.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 556); 最大公表体重: 4.8 kg (Ref. 2058); 最大記録サイズ: 22 年 (Ref. 796)
背面の脊椎 (合計): 14 - 20; 背鰭 (合計): 13-16; 肛門の骨 2; 臀鰭: 7 - 10; 脊つい: 39 - 42. Diagnosed from other species of Percidae in Europe by having the following unique characters: pelvic and anal fins yellow to red; posterior part of first dorsal fin with dark blotch; and flank with 5-8 bold dark bars, usually Y-shaped. Differs further by the combination of the following features: two dorsal fins, clearly separated from each other; and 56-77 scales along lateral line (Ref. 59043). Body greenish-yellow; 5-9 transverse black bands on the sides; first dorsal fin gray, black spot at the tip; second dorsal greenish-yellow; pectorals yellow; other fins red. First dorsal fin markedly higher than the second. Caudal fin emarginate (Ref. 2058).
Inhabits a very wide range of habitats from estuarine lagoons, lakes of all types to medium-sized streams. Feeding larvae occur in open water. This is an opportunistic diurnal feeder which preys mainly during sunrise and sunset, using all available prey. Larvae and small juveniles usually feed on planktonic invertebrates. During first summer, many juveniles move near shores to feed on benthic prey. Often feeds on fishes at about 12 cm SL. May undertake short spawning migrations. Males attain first sexual maturity at 1-2 years and females at 2-4 years of age. Spawns in February-July (Ref. 59043). Eggs grouped in long white ribbons (up to 1 m) are found over submerged objects (Ref. 41678). Its flesh is excellent and not so bony. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten pan-fried and baked (Ref. 9988). May be captured with natural or artificial bait (Ref. 30578).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
During breeding, males arrive at the spawning area ahead of the females. One or two of these males chases a ripe female as soon as it arrives in the area (polyandry) (Ref. 6258). The queue of males maybe longer composed of about 15 to 25 individuals, but only two prod their snouts against the female's belly (Ref. 205). After rounds of curved course through the interlacing branches near the surface (Ref. 205), males fertilize the egg ribbon as the female lays them over weeds or other submerged objects (Ref. 6258). Eggs grouped in long white ribbons (up to 1 m) are found over submerged objects (Ref. 41678). Eggs hatch in about 8 to 16 days at normal temperatures (Ref. 6258).
Males mature at 2-3 years and females at 4 years. Spawning, in the Northern hemisphere, happens in spring in waters with temperatures between 7-8°C. Eggs are laid in sticky strings becoming fixed to
aquatic plants and rocks. Incubation lasts about 1- 8 days at 1- 3°. Egg size 2.0-2.5mm, larval length at hatching 5mm.
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
水産業: 高い商業の; 水産養殖: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00839 - 0.01192), b=3.08 (3.03 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.7 (5.2 - 6.9) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 39 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 低い, ４．５年～１４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.1-0.4; tm=2-4; tmax=22; Fecundity=13,000).
弱み (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .