Torpedo panthera, Panther electric ray

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Torpedo panthera Olfers, 1831

Panther electric ray
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Torpedo panthera   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Torpedo panthera (Panther electric ray)
Torpedo panthera
Picture by Field, R.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes (Electric rays) > Torpedinidae (Electric rays)
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 居于水底的; 深度上下限 1 - 350 m (Ref. 58488).   熱帶; 30°N - 11°N, 34°E - 85°E (Ref. 114953)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964) and Red Sea. Reports from other parts of the western Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal) probably refer to a different species.
西印度洋: 紅海。 來自西印度洋的其他部分的報告可能指的是一個不同的種。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 30573)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 0; 脊椎骨: 98 - 102. Disc-width shorter than its length, width and length about 1,60 to 1,80 times in total length; dorsal fins more or less rounded, its base 1,25 times in its length (Ref. 39215).
体盘-宽度短于它的长度,宽度与长度大约 1,60 到 1,80 倍全长; 背鳍约略圆的, 它的基底 1,25 倍于体长.(参考文献 39215)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Found on coral reefs; as well as mud or sandy bottoms, from shallow water to a depth of 100 m (Ref. 30573, Ref. 114953). Mainly feeds on invertebrates and small reef fishes (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Males reaches maturity at 28 cm TL (Ref. 114953).

栖息于泥或砂质底部,从浅水区到深度 100 公尺了。 (参考文献 30573) 卵胎生的.(参考文献 50449)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).西印度洋: 紅海。 來自西印度洋的其他部分的報告可能指的是一個不同的種。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Carvalho, Marcelo | 合作者

Michael, S.W., 1993. Reef sharks and rays of the world. A guide to their identification, behavior, and ecology. Sea Challengers, Monterey, California. 107 p. (Ref. 12951)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  数据缺失 (DD) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

另外地





人类利用

FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 18.5 - 26.3, mean 23.4 °C (based on 224 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.00909 - 0.03994), b=2.88 (2.69 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.6   ±0.8 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增时间超过14 年 (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .