Salvelinus malma, Dolly varden : fisheries, gamefish

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Salvelinus malma (Walbaum, 1792)

Dolly varden
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Salvelinus malma   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) 鮭形目 (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) 鮭科 (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salvelinus: Old name for char; it is the same root of german "saibling" = little salmon (Ref. 45335);  malma: malma which is the the common name for this species in Kamchatka (Ref. 1998).  More on author: Walbaum.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 200 m (Ref. 50550).   溫帶; 4°C - 18°C (Ref. 13614); 75°N - 38°N, 127°E - 123°W

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North America: Arctic and Pacific drainages from lower Mackenzie River in Northwest Territories, Canada to Puget Sound and Quinault River in Washington, USA (Ref. 86798). Northwest Pacific: Korea to Bering Sea (Ref. 2850).
北極圈, 東北太平洋的西北: 流域從阿拉斯加到 Puget 聲音, 美國在華盛頓州; 從前在美國加州的 McCloud 河流域。 西北太平洋: 韓國到白令海.(參考文獻 2850)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 23.5, range 12 - 21 cm
Max length : 127 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 27436); common length : 37.5 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 12193); 最大體重: 18.3 kg (Ref. 27436)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 10-16; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 10 - 15. Body elongate, somewhat rounded, greatest body depth below dorsal fin. Head rather long. Pelvic fins with free-tipped fleshy appendage above its insertion. Caudal emarginate (Ref. 27547). Color varies with size, locality and habitat. Sea-run adults with back, upper head, and upper sides dark blue, the sides silvery to white. In freshwater populations, the back and upper sides are olive green to brown, the sides a paler color but bright red in spawning fish and at all times in some areas of Alaska, the underside white to dusky. The dorsal surface are marked with yellow, orange or red spots, more numerous and those along the lateral line smaller, than in arctic char. Spawning males, especially of anadromous populations, turn red on the ventral surface and tip of snout. The lower jaw, operculum and parts of the head are black, the back and sides turn olive-brown. The spots become more vivid orange-red, the pectoral and anal fins red-black with a white leading edge, the snout thickens and the lower jaw turns up. Females change less.
細長的身體,略微圓的, 在背鰭之下的最大體高。 頭部相當長的。 腹鰭有頂端分離的在它的嵌入上面的肉質附肢。 尾部的邊緣微凹的.(參考文獻 27547) 顏色隨著大小,地點與棲息地改變。 海洋迴游的成魚有背面,上面的頭部與上側面深藍色,側邊銀色到白色。 族群, 背部與上側面是橄欖綠色的在淡水中到褐色的, 側邊一個較灰白的顏色但是鮮紅色在產卵魚方面而在全部倍在一些地區阿拉斯加州, 腹面白色者到暗色的。 背部表面被有顯著的黃色,橘色或者紅色的斑點, 眾多的與那些沿著側線小的, 超過在北極的零碎工作中。 生育期的雄魚, 尤其溯河洄游產卵族群, 在腹面與吻尖上變成紅色。 下面的頜, 鰓蓋與頭部的部份是黑色, 背部,而且側邊變黃褐色的。 斑點變得更生動的橘紅色, 胸鰭與臀鰭紅色-黑色的有一個白色的前緣, 吻部粗而下面的頜旋轉在。上面 雌性改變比較少量。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in deep runs and pools of creeks and small to large rivers; also in lakes and the sea (Ref. 5723, 86798). Lives in very clean mountain streams (Ref. 12218). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Typically anadromous, but many populations are landlocked. Anadromous fish may spend 2-3 years at sea, evidently near shore, migrate upstream usually in fall, and spawn during spring (Ref. 86798). Young remain in streams for 3-4 years and feed on insects, leeches, snails, and salmon eggs (Ref. 1998) before entering brackish and salt water to feed on insects, fishes, and other invertebrates. Utilized fresh and eaten fried, broiled, and baked (Ref. 9988).

出現於小溪與河的深小支流與水潭; 也在湖與海洋中.(參考文獻 5723) 生活在非常乾淨的山地溪流。 (參考文獻 12218) 沿海-大洋性.(參考文獻 58426) 典型溯河洄游產卵, 但是許多族群是陸封的.(參考文獻 5723) 溯河洄游產卵魚可能度過在海上的 2-3 年, 明顯地近岸, 而且移動溯河到產卵.(參考文獻 5723) 幼魚逗留在溪流達 3-4 年而且在進入半鹹淡水之前吃昆蟲,水蛭,蝸牛與鮭魚卵 (參考文獻 1998) 與鹹水覓食昆蟲,魚與其他的無脊椎動物。 生鮮使用與油炸後食用, 烤的與烘乾的.(參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Adults from the sea and lakes enter rivers to spawn. A female selects a nest site and begins to dig a redd while the male continues to court her and drive away intruding males. Upon completion of the redd, both drop into it and release eggs and sperm. This may be repeated several times before the eggs are covered by the female who swims along the edge of the of the redd, sweeping small pebbles and other particles into it with her tail and anal fin. Later, she may dig again and further cover the eggs while preparing a new nest (Ref. 27547). Breeding is an annual event for southern populations; occurring every second or third year in the Arctic (Ref. 27547). Males and females reportedly die after spawning (Ref. 12218).北極圈, 東北太平洋的西北: 流域從阿拉斯加到 Puget 聲音, 美國在華盛頓州; 從前在美國加州的 McCloud 河流域。 西北太平洋: 韓國到白令海.(參考文獻 2850)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  未評估 

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.2 - 8, mean 2.2 (based on 653 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00351 - 0.00823), b=3.03 (2.90 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (tm=3-5).
Prior r = 0.24, 95% CL = 0.15 - 0.39, Based on 1 stock assessment.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.