Osphronemus exodon, Elephant ear gourami : fisheries

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Osphronemus exodon Roberts, 1994

Elephant ear gourami
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Osphronemus exodon
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Anabantiformes (Gouramies, snakeheads) > Osphronemidae (Gouramies) > Osphroneminae
Etymology: Osphronemus: Greek, osphra = smell + Greek, nema = filament; because of the olfactory organs (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Roberts.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水 大洋性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243). 熱帶

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Asia: known only from the Mekong basin.
亞洲: 已知只來自湄公河流域了。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 30857)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 14 - 16; 背的软条 (总数): 10-11; 臀棘 11-13; 臀鳍软条: 17 - 19. Differs from the other three known species of Osphronemus in having oral teeth increasingly enlarged and externalized in large adults, a condition apparently unique within anabantoid fishes. In large specimens examined, over 40 cm SL, all of the jaw teeth are enlarged, especially those in the outermost rows, which lie on the external surface of the jaws entirely outside the mouth when it is shut. Coloration of juveniles and adults also is diagnostic. Small juveniles have 6 or 7 vertical bars and a supra-anal dark oval spot, none of which are retained by adults and subadults. Juveniles over about 10 cm have a reddish orangish stripe on the lower part of the head and breast, a feature not observed in any other species. All adults have extensive dark (almost black) areas ventrally and pale areas dorsally. Several large specimens (especially from Stung Treng market, Cambodia) with large and irregular red blotches that superficially at least look very muck like bodied bruises.
有别于另一个三个已知 Osphronemus 的种有在大的成鱼逐渐地被增大而且使外在化的口部的齿,一个环境显然独特在 anabantoid 鱼里面。 在大的个体中调查, 超过 40 公分 SL, 所有的颌齿被增大, 尤其那些在最外的列, 在嘴巴之外完全地躺在颚的外部表面上当它被关上的时候。 稚鱼与成鱼的颜色也是鉴别的。 小的稚鱼有 6 或者 7个纵带与一在上方-肛门的深色椭圆形的斑点, 没有那是被成鱼与亚成鱼保有。 稚鱼在大约 10 公分之上有一个在头部与胸部的下面部份上的淡红橘色的斑纹,一个特徵在任何其他的种方面没有被观察到。 所有的成鱼腹地有广泛的深色 (几乎黑色的) 区域与背面灰白的区域。 一些大的标本 (尤其从 Stung Treng 市场, 柬埔寨) 有大的与不规则的红色斑块哪一表面地至少看最垃圾类似身体瘀伤。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in pools of large rivers and in flooded forests during the rainy season. Feeds mainly on plant matter including fruits, leaves, and flowers, with some insects and crustaceans. Known to reproduce in non-flowing waters near the river shore during lowest water levels (Ref. 12693). Undertakes lateral migrations from the Mekong mainstream into floodplain areas during the flood season and returns to the Mekong River or other permanent water bodies during the dry season (Ref. 37770). These movements are triggered when water levels change (Ref. 37770). Marketed fresh (Ref. 12693).

出现于大河的水池与在被水淹没的森林中在雨季的时候。 主要吃植物包括果实,树叶与花, 有一些昆虫与甲壳动物。 已知在最低的水位的时候在河岸附近的非流动的水域中繁殖.(参考文献 12693) 在乾季的时候在洪水季节的时候进行横向的回游从湄公河主流进入洪泛区区域而且回到湄公河或其他的永久性水体。 (参考文献 37770) 当水位改变的时候,这些运动被引起。 (参考文献 37770) 在市场上销售生鲜地了。 (参考文献 12693)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Builds a small nest, made of leaves and roots of a plant named "gohk kai" in Takam, just below the Lee Pee Waterfalls in southern Laos. Eggs and young are guarded by one parent as observed in the Mekong basin at Stung Treng.亞洲: 已知只來自湄公河流域了。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Rainboth, W.J., 1996. Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. FAO, Rome, 265 p. (Ref. 12693)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 125652)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A2ce); Date assessed: 01 March 2007

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00689 - 0.04188), b=3.01 (2.79 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.7   ±0.29 se; based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Fec = 1,240).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):   (0 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.