Osphronemus exodon, Elephant ear gourami : fisheries

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Osphronemus exodon Roberts, 1994

Elephant ear gourami
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Osphronemus exodon
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Anabantiformes (Gouramies, snakeheads) 鱸形目 (Gouramies, snakeheads) > Osphronemidae (Gouramies) 絲足鱸科 (Gouramies) > Osphroneminae
Etymology: Osphronemus: Greek, osphra = smell + Greek, nema = filament; because of the olfactory organs (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Roberts.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水 大洋性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243). 熱帶

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Asia: known only from the Mekong basin.
亞洲: 已知只來自湄公河流域了。

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 30857)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 14 - 16; 背的軟條 (總數): 10-11; 臀棘 11-13; 臀鰭軟條: 17 - 19. Differs from the other three known species of Osphronemus in having oral teeth increasingly enlarged and externalized in large adults, a condition apparently unique within anabantoid fishes. In large specimens examined, over 40 cm SL, all of the jaw teeth are enlarged, especially those in the outermost rows, which lie on the external surface of the jaws entirely outside the mouth when it is shut. Coloration of juveniles and adults also is diagnostic. Small juveniles have 6 or 7 vertical bars and a supra-anal dark oval spot, none of which are retained by adults and subadults. Juveniles over about 10 cm have a reddish orangish stripe on the lower part of the head and breast, a feature not observed in any other species. All adults have extensive dark (almost black) areas ventrally and pale areas dorsally. Several large specimens (especially from Stung Treng market, Cambodia) with large and irregular red blotches that superficially at least look very muck like bodied bruises.
有別於另一個三個已知 Osphronemus 的種有在大的成魚逐漸地被增大而且使外在化的口部的齒,一個環境顯然獨特在 anabantoid 魚裡面。 在大的個體中調查, 超過 40 公分 SL, 所有的頜齒被增大, 尤其那些在最外的列, 在嘴巴之外完全地躺在顎的外部表面上當它被關上的時候。 稚魚與成魚的顏色也是鑑別的。 小的稚魚有 6 或者 7個縱帶與一在上方-肛門的深色橢圓形的斑點, 沒有那是被成魚與亞成魚保有。 稚魚在大約 10 公分之上有一個在頭部與胸部的下面部份上的淡紅橘色的斑紋,一個特徵在任何其他的種方面沒有被觀察到。 所有的成魚腹地有廣泛的深色 (幾乎黑色的) 區域與背面灰白的區域。 一些大的標本 (尤其從 Stung Treng 市場, 柬埔寨) 有大的與不規則的紅色斑塊哪一表面地至少看最垃圾類似身體瘀傷。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in pools of large rivers and in flooded forests during the rainy season. Feeds mainly on plant matter including fruits, leaves, and flowers, with some insects and crustaceans. Known to reproduce in non-flowing waters near the river shore during lowest water levels (Ref. 12693). Undertakes lateral migrations from the Mekong mainstream into floodplain areas during the flood season and returns to the Mekong River or other permanent water bodies during the dry season (Ref. 37770). These movements are triggered when water levels change (Ref. 37770). Marketed fresh (Ref. 12693).

出現於大河的水池與在被水淹沒的森林中在雨季的時候。 主要吃植物包括果實,樹葉與花, 有一些昆蟲與甲殼動物。 已知在最低的水位的時候在河岸附近的非流動的水域中繁殖.(參考文獻 12693) 在乾季的時候在洪水季節的時候進行橫向的迴游從湄公河主流進入洪泛區區域而且回到湄公河或其他的永久性水體。 (參考文獻 37770) 當水位改變的時候,這些運動被引起。 (參考文獻 37770) 在市場上銷售生鮮地了。 (參考文獻 12693)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Builds a small nest, made of leaves and roots of a plant named "gohk kai" in Takam, just below the Lee Pee Waterfalls in southern Laos. Eggs and young are guarded by one parent as observed in the Mekong basin at Stung Treng.亞洲: 已知只來自湄公河流域了。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Rainboth, W.J., 1996. Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. FAO, Rome, 265 p. (Ref. 12693)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 125652)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2ce); Date assessed: 01 March 2007

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00689 - 0.04188), b=3.01 (2.79 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.7   ±0.29 se; based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Fec = 1,240).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):   (0 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.