分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼)
(Carps) > Cyprinidae
(Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Abramis: Greek, abramis, -idos = a fish, grey mullet (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 15 - ?; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - ? m (Ref. 9696). 溫帶; 10°C - 24°C (Ref. 2059); 75°N - 40°N, 11°W - 73°E
Europe and Asia: most European drainages from Adour (France) to Pechora (White Sea basin); Aegean Sea basin, in Lake Volvi and Struma and Maritza drainages. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic basin, Italy, Scotland, Scandinavia north of Bergen (Norway) and 67°N (Finland). Locally introduced in Ireland, Spain and northeastern Italy. In Asia, from Marmara basin (Turkey) and eastward to Aral basin. Introduced in Lake Baikal and upper Ob and Yenisei drainages.
歐洲與亞洲: 從庇里牛斯山脈東部與向北從阿爾卑斯山脈與中亞, 在波羅的海 ,黑海 ,里海與鹹海北方的流域。
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 82.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 6114); common length : 25.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3561); 最大体重: 6.0 kg (Ref. 4699); 最大年龄: 23 年 (Ref. 796)
背棘 (总数): 3; 背的软条 (总数): 9-10; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 23 - 30; 脊椎骨: 43 - 45. The only species of the genus which can be diagnosed from other species of Ballerus, Blicca and Vimba by the following characters: mouth sub-inferior, which can be extended as a tube; lateral line with 51-60 scales; anal fin with 30½ branched rays; eye diameter about 2/3 of snout length in individuals larger than 10 cm SL; pharyngeal teeth 5-5; and base of paired fins hyaline or grey (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196). Tall, laterally compressed body. Fins darker in adults. Anal fin base twice as long as the dorsal fin (Ref. 35388).
尾鳍有 19个鳍条。 (参考文献 2196) 高又侧扁的身体。 鳍比较黑的当成鱼时。 臀鳍基底两倍长于背鳍。 (参考文献 35388)
Adults inhabit a wide variety of lakes and large to medium sized rivers. Most abundant in backwaters, lower parts of slow-flowing rivers, brackish estuaries and warm and shallow lakes (Ref. 59043). Adults occur usually in still and slow-running waters where they travel in large shoals (Ref. 9696). Larvae and juveniles live in still water bodies, feeding on plankton. One to two years old juveniles move from backwaters to river to feed. In the absence of opportunity to leave backwaters, juveniles may adapt but have a slower growth and attain maturity at a smaller size. They also drift to brackishwater estuaries to forage when water level of flooded areas drops in lower reaches of large rivers. Foraging juveniles in brackish waters stay in lower parts of rivers to overwinter in freshwater (Ref. 59043). Feed on insects, particularly chironomids, small crustaceans, mollusks and plants. Larger specimens may feed on small fish. Juveniles feed on zooplankton (Ref. 30578). Able to shift to particle feeding or even filter feeding at high zooplankton abundance. Usually spawn in backwaters, floodplains or lakes shores with dense vegetation (Ref. 59043). Can survive out of the water for extended periods (Ref. 9988). The flesh is bony, insipid and soft (Ref. 30578). Marketed fresh or frozen. Eaten steamed, broiled, fried and baked (Ref. 9988).
通常生活在静止而流动缓慢的水域在哪里它形成大鱼群移动.(参考文献 9696) 吃昆虫, 特别地宝刀鱼，小型甲壳动物，软件动物与植物。 较大的标本可能吃小鱼。 稚鱼吃浮游动物。 (参考文献 30578) 能离水存活长时间.(参考文献 9988) 肉是多骨的，没有味道的与软的。 (参考文献 30578) 生鲜或冷冻地在市场上销售。 清蒸, 火烤, 油炸了而且烧烤了.(参考文献 9988)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
Undergo upriver migration (100 km in Dniepr) to spawn. Many populations start spawning migration in autumn ( especially semi-anadromours forms), slow down during winter and continue in spring. Males often defend spawning territories along shorelines. Eggs are sticky and eggs size increases with age of female. Frequently forms fertile hybrids with Rutilus rutilus (Ref. 59043).歐洲與亞洲: 從庇里牛斯山脈東部與向北從阿爾卑斯山脈與中亞, 在波羅的海 ,黑海 ,里海與鹹海北方的流域。
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 诱饵: usually
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00776 - 0.00978), b=3.14 (3.11 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.2 (7.3 - 11.0) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 52 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.06-0.17; tm=3-5; tmax=17; Fec=90,000-340,000).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .