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Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758)

Freshwater bream
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Abramis brama
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Cypriniformes (Carps) 鯉形目 (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 鯉科 (Minnows or carps) > Leuciscinae
Etymology: Abramis: Greek, abramis, -idos = a fish, grey mullet (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; pH range: 7.0 - 7.5; dH range: 15 - ?; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - ? m (Ref. 9696).   溫帶; 10°C - 24°C (Ref. 2059); 75°N - 40°N, 11°W - 73°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia: most European drainages from Adour (France) to Pechora (White Sea basin); Aegean Sea basin, in Lake Volvi and Struma and Maritza drainages. Naturally absent from Iberian Peninsula, Adriatic basin, Italy, Scotland, Scandinavia north of Bergen (Norway) and 67°N (Finland). Locally introduced in Ireland, Spain and northeastern Italy. In Asia, from Marmara basin (Turkey) and eastward to Aral basin. Introduced in Lake Baikal and upper Ob and Yenisei drainages.
歐洲與亞洲: 從庇里牛斯山脈東部與向北從阿爾卑斯山脈與中亞, 在波羅的海 ,黑海 ,里海與鹹海北方的流域。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 82.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 6114); common length : 25.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3561); 最大體重: 6.0 kg (Ref. 4699); 最大年齡: 23 年 (Ref. 796)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 9-10; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 23 - 30; 脊椎骨: 43 - 45. The only species of the genus which can be diagnosed from other species of Ballerus, Blicca and Vimba by the following characters: mouth sub-inferior, which can be extended as a tube; lateral line with 51-60 scales; anal fin with 30½ branched rays; eye diameter about 2/3 of snout length in individuals larger than 10 cm SL; pharyngeal teeth 5-5; and base of paired fins hyaline or grey (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196). Tall, laterally compressed body. Fins darker in adults. Anal fin base twice as long as the dorsal fin (Ref. 35388).
尾鰭有 19個鰭條。 (參考文獻 2196) 高又側扁的身體。 鰭比較黑的當成魚時。 臀鰭基底兩倍長於背鰭。 (參考文獻 35388)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults inhabit a wide variety of lakes and large to medium sized rivers. Most abundant in backwaters, lower parts of slow-flowing rivers, brackish estuaries and warm and shallow lakes (Ref. 59043). Adults occur usually in still and slow-running waters where they travel in large shoals (Ref. 9696). Larvae and juveniles live in still water bodies, feeding on plankton. One to two years old juveniles move from backwaters to river to feed. In the absence of opportunity to leave backwaters, juveniles may adapt but have a slower growth and attain maturity at a smaller size. They also drift to brackishwater estuaries to forage when water level of flooded areas drops in lower reaches of large rivers. Foraging juveniles in brackish waters stay in lower parts of rivers to overwinter in freshwater (Ref. 59043). Feed on insects, particularly chironomids, small crustaceans, mollusks and plants. Larger specimens may feed on small fish. Juveniles feed on zooplankton (Ref. 30578). Able to shift to particle feeding or even filter feeding at high zooplankton abundance. Usually spawn in backwaters, floodplains or lakes shores with dense vegetation (Ref. 59043). Can survive out of the water for extended periods (Ref. 9988). The flesh is bony, insipid and soft (Ref. 30578). Marketed fresh or frozen. Eaten steamed, broiled, fried and baked (Ref. 9988).

成魚出現通常在靜止而流動緩慢的水域在那裡它形成大魚群移動.(參考文獻 9696) 捕食昆蟲, 特別地寶刀魚,小型甲殼動物,軟體動物與植物。 較大的標本可能吃小魚。 稚魚吃浮游動物。 (參考文獻 30578) 五月在高的浮游動物豐度的對粒子進食或平坦的濾食性的變化.(參考文獻 59043) 能離水存活長時間.(參考文獻 9988) 肉是多骨的﹐沒有味道的與軟的。 (參考文獻 30578) 生鮮或冷凍地在市場上銷售。 清蒸, 火烤, 油炸.而且燒烤..(參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Undergo upriver migration (100 km in Dniepr) to spawn. Many populations start spawning migration in autumn ( especially semi-anadromours forms), slow down during winter and continue in spring. Males often defend spawning territories along shorelines. Eggs are sticky and eggs size increases with age of female. Frequently forms fertile hybrids with Rutilus rutilus (Ref. 59043).歐洲與亞洲: 從庇里牛斯山脈東部與向北從阿爾卑斯山脈與中亞, 在波羅的海 ,黑海 ,里海與鹹海北方的流域。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 誘餌: usually
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource |

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00776 - 0.00978), b=3.14 (3.11 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 9.2 (7.3 - 11.0) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 52 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.06-0.17; tm=3-5; tmax=17; Fec=90,000-340,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.