Coregonus autumnalis, Arctic cisco : fisheries

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Coregonus autumnalis (Pallas, 1776)

Arctic cisco
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Coregonus autumnalis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Coregonus autumnalis
Male picture by Harrod, C.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Coregoninae
Etymology: Coregonus: Greek, kore = pupils of the eye + Greek, gonia = angle (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Pallas.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243).   極; 84°N - 49°N, 8°W - 95°W

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Europe: All drainages (except Ob and Baikal) of Arctic Ocean in Eurasia from Mezen eastward. North America: Cape Barrow to Coronation Bay. Introduced in many localities of former USSR, but not established (Ref. 59043).
歐洲: 西伯利亞的英國,巴倫支海與海岸與河。 也在愛爾蘭, 在那裡它是直到最近 Coregonus lavaretus 互相混淆的與 Coregonus albula.(參考文獻 6258) 北方美國: 在加拿大西北地區中的 Murchison 河在阿拉斯加州指出搬運架; 也在西北地區 (參考文獻 5273) 與 Liard 河,卑詩省下游中的麥肯茲河.(參考文獻 10882) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 屬於 Coregonus artedi 複合體。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 65.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 47.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 12193); 最大年龄: 12 年 (Ref. 59043)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 10-12; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 12 - 14; 脊椎骨: 64 - 67. Distinguished by the pale or colorless pelvic fins, a terminal mouth and the presence of 41 to 48 gill rakers on the 1st gill arch (Ref. 27547). Dorsal fairly high and slightly falcate; pelvic with axillary process (Ref. 27547). Brown to dark greenish above fading to silvery on sides and belly; fins pale (Ref. 27547).
区别的特徵为灰白或者无色的腹鳍了, 一口部端位且那在第一鳃弓上有 41 到 48个鳃耙.(参考文献 27547) 背鳍非常高与些微镰刀状; 腹鳍有腋窝的突起。 (参考文献 27547) 褪成的褐色到深色的呈绿色的上方银色的在侧边与腹面上; 鳍灰白的.(参考文献 27547)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in brackish waters (20-22 ppt) of coastal lagoons and mouths of rivers and bays (Ref. 4779). Mostly in larger lowland rivers (Ref. 59043). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on small crustaceans, insects, small fishes (Ref. 28219, 28857), worms and clams (Ref. 58426). At sea, feeds on larger crustaceans and small fish (Ref. 59043). No feeding occurs during the upstream migration (Ref. 4779). Lives 10 -12 years, rarely up to 20 (Ref. 59043). Enters rivers in shoals to spawn (Ref. 4779). Spends 6-8 years at sea before maturing and returning to rivers in June - July, to spawn in September - October of same year. A second run in autumn; those fishes remain a year in rivers before spawning. Moves far upstream, sometimes our to 1500 km. Spawns in shallow tributaries with some current in well oxygenated water over gravel bottom. Individual females do not spawn every year; spawns only 2-3 times during entire life. After spawning adults return directly to sea. Embryonic development lasts up to 7 months. Alevins migrate downstream in May - June (Ref. 59043). Collected by fyke nets (Ref. 4526). An important commercial species, but catches and abundance markedly reduced in last years (Ref. 59043).

出现于岸边泻湖与河口的半咸淡水域 (20-22个 ppt) 与海湾。 (参考文献 4779) 在浅滩中进入河产卵.(参考文献 4779) 吃小型甲壳动物,昆虫与小鱼。 (参考文献 28219,28857) 没有进食发生于溯溪回游。 (参考文献 4779) 由待袋网收集了。 (参考文献 4526)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Mature adults migrate upstream in the summer and may cover as much as 1,000 km (Ref. 28219) to spawn over gravel in fairly swift water. After spawning, adults return downstream. Young probably hatch in the spring and descend rivers into estuaries (Ref. 27547). Coregonus autumnalis do not breed yearly (Ref. 28219, 28220).歐洲: 西伯利亞的英國,巴倫支海與海岸與河。 也在愛爾蘭, 在那裡它是直到最近 Coregonus lavaretus 互相混淆的與 Coregonus albula.(參考文獻 6258) 北方美國: 在加拿大西北地區中的 Murchison 河在阿拉斯加州指出搬運架; 也在西北地區 (參考文獻 5273) 與 Liard 河,卑詩省下游中的麥肯茲河.(參考文獻 10882) 伯恩公約的附錄 3(受保育的動物群). 屬於 Coregonus artedi 複合體。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Wheeler, A., 1992. A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol. 41(suppl.A):1-37. (Ref. 5204)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 01 January 2008

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): -1.7 - 3.4, mean -0.4 (based on 988 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00385 - 0.00568), b=3.21 (3.17 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (tm=6; Fec=2,000).
Prior r = 0.40, 95% CL = 0.26 - 0.60, Based on 1 stock assessment.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.