分类 / Names
俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼)
(Pikes and mudminnows) > Esocidae
Etymology: Esox: From Greek, isox and also related with the Celtic root, eog, ehawc = salmon (Ref. 45335); lucius: lucius which is supposedly the latin name for this species (Ref. 1998). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 河川洄游; 深度上下限 0 - 30 m (Ref. 1998), usually 1 - 5 m (Ref. 1998). 溫帶; 10°C - 28°C (Ref. 12741); 72°N - 37°N, 11°W - 55°W (Ref. 121102)
Circumpolar in fresh water. North America: Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins from Labrador to Alaska and south to Pennsylvania and Nebraska, USA (Ref. 86798). Eurasia: Caspian, Black, Baltic, White, Barents, Arctic, North and Aral Seas and Atlantic basins, southwest to Adour drainage; Mediterranean basin in Rhône drainage and northern Italy. Widely distributed in central Asia and Siberia easward to Anadyr drainage (Bering Sea basin). Historically absent from Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean France, central Italy, southern and western Greece, eastern Adriatic basin, Iceland, western Norway and northern Scotland. Widely introduced and translocated throughout Europe (Ref. 59043). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).
在淡水中的極地附近。 北美洲: 大西洋，北極圈，太平洋, 五大湖與從拉布拉多到阿拉斯加州的密西西比河流域而且南至賓州，密蘇里與內布拉斯加。 歐亞大陸: 法國到西伯利亞東部, 南至義大利北部。 挪威北部與蘇格蘭北部沒有出現。 引入其他的國家中了。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄
Maturity: Lm 38.8, range 25 - 63 cm
Max length : 137 cm FL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 40637); 150.0 cm TL (female); common length : 40.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 556); common length :55 cm TL (female); 最大体重: 28.4 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大体重: 28.4 kg; 最大年龄: 30 年 (Ref. 556)
背的软条 (总数): 17-25; 臀鳍软条: 10 - 22; 脊椎骨: 57 - 65. Diagnosed from all other freshwater fishes in Europe by the combination of the following characters: long snout; large mouth; dorsal fin origin slightly in front of anal origin; and lateral line with 105-148 scales (Ref. 59043). Distinguished by its long, flat, 'duck-bill' snout; its large mouth with many large, sharp teeth; and the rearward position of its dorsal and anal fins (Ref. 27547). Gill rakers present only as patches of sharp teeth on gill arches; lateral line notched posteriorly (Ref. 27547). Dorsal located far to the rear; anal located under and arising a little behind dorsal; pectorals low on body, base under opercle; pelvic fins low on body; paired fins rounded, paddle-shaped (Ref. 27547). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).
区别的特徵为它的长，平坦的,'鸭子-嘴' 吻; 它的大嘴巴有许多大又锐利的齿; 而且它的背鳍与臀鳍的向后方位置.(参考文献 27547) 有鳃耙只当作区块锐利地牙齿在鳃弓; 侧线在后部地凹槽。 (参考文献 27547) 背部的位于远的到后面; 肛门的位置在出现在面而且在背鳍稍后方; 胸鳍在身体上的低处, 在鳃盖下面的基底; 腹鳍在身体上的低处; 偶鳍圆的, 桨状的.(参考文献 27547) 尾鳍有 19个鳍条。 (参考文献 2196)
Occurs in clear vegetated lakes, quiet pools and backwaters of creeks and small to large rivers (Ref. 5723, 86798). Usually solitary and highly territorial. Enters brackish water in the Baltic. Adults feed mainly on fishes, but at times feed heavily on frogs and crayfish (Ref. 27547). Cannibalism is common. In arctic lakes, it is sometimes the only species present in a given water body. In such cases, juveniles feed on invertebrates and terrestrial vertebrates; large individuals are mainly cannibals (Ref. 59043). Cannibalistic as juveniles (Ref. 30578). Feces of pike are avoided by other fish because they contain alarm pheromones. Deposits feces at specific locations, distant from its foraging area (Ref. 59043). Eggs and young are preyed upon by fishes, aquatic insect larvae, birds, and aquatic mammals (Ref. 1998). Does not generally undertake long migrations, but a few may move considerable distances (Ref. 27547). Oviparous (Ref. 205). This fish can be heavily infested with parasites, including the broad tapeworm which, if not killed by thorough cooking, can infect human; is used as an intermediate host by a cestode parasite which results to large losses in usable catches of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in some areas; also suffers from a trematode which causes unsightly cysts on the skin (Ref. 9988). Excellent food fish; utilized fresh and frozen; eaten pan-fried, broiled, and baked (Ref. 9988). Valuable game fish (Ref. 5723). In spite of numerous attempts to culture this species, it was never entirely domesticated and does not accept artificial food (Ref. 30578). Locally impacted by habitat alterations (Ref. 59043).
出现于小溪与小型到大型河川的清澈长满植物的湖泊，静止的池水与洄水区。 (参考文献 5723) 通常独居性与高度具有领域性。 在波罗的海中进入半淡咸水。 成鱼主要捕食鱼，但是偶而吃经常捕食青蛙与小龙虾。 (参考文献 27547) 同类相食的稚鱼时.(参考文献 30578) 卵与幼鱼被鱼，水生的昆虫幼生，鸟与水生的哺乳动物捕食。 (参考文献 1998) 不会通常进行长距离的回游, 但是一些可能移动相当多的距离.(参考文献 27547) 卵生的.(参考文献 205) 这一个鱼能很重地与寄生虫一起骚擾, 包括寬的條蟲, 如果不殺被完全烹飪,能傳染人類; 被製成條蟲的一個中間寄主對湖白鯨 ( Coregonus clupeaformis) 的可使用捕獲的大失敗在一些地區產生的寄生蟲; 也蒙受在皮膚上不檢查地引起包囊的一個吸蟲。 (參考文獻 9988) 優良的食用魚; 生鮮利用與冷凍; 吃油鍋炸的, 烤的與烘乾的.(參考文獻 9988) 有價值的遊釣魚類.(參考文獻 5723) 儘管很多的嘗試養殖這種, 它完全地從不被養馴而且不會接受人造的食物.(參考文獻 30578)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | 卵 | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼
Spawners move inshore or upstream to the marsh areas to spawn (Ref. 27547). Generally, spawning occurs during the day. The sexes pair and a larger female is usually attended by one or two smaller males. They swim through and over the vegetation in water usually less than 17.8 cm, releasing eggs and sperm simultaneously at irregular intervals (Ref. 1998). Eggs are deposited in flooded areas and on submerged vegetation over a period of 2-5 days (Ref. 59043). Only 5 to 60 eggs ae released at a time (Ref. 27547). This act is repeated every few minutes for up to several hours, after which the fish rest for some time before resuming. During the resting period, both male and female may take new mates, or they may continue together for several days until all eggs are extruded. Spawned-out adults may stay on the spawning grounds for as long as 14 weeks, but most leave within 6 (Ref. 27547).在淡水中的極地附近。 北美洲: 大西洋，北極圈，太平洋, 五大湖與從拉布拉多到阿拉斯加州的密西西比河流域而且南至賓州，密蘇里與內布拉斯加。 歐亞大陸: 法國到西伯利亞東部, 南至義大利北部。 挪威北部與蘇格蘭北部沒有出現。 引入其他的國家中了。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。
Crossman, E.J., 1996. Taxonomy and distribution. p. 1-11. In J.F. Craig (ed.) Pike biology and exploration. Chapman and Hall, London. 298 p. (Ref. 26373)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5157 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00382 - 0.00499), b=3.09 (3.05 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 7.2 (5.8 - 8.9) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 41 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179
): 低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.07-0.3; tm=2-3; tmax=30; Fec=2,000-600,000).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .