分類 / Names
俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Petromyzonti > Petromyzontiformes
(Lampreys) 七鰓鰻目 (Lampreys)
(Northern lampreys) 七鰓鰻科 (Northern lampreys)
Etymology: Lampetra: Latin, lambere = lick + Greek,petra = stone, with allusion to the lamprey attaching itself to stones (Ref. 45335). Latin, lambendis petris, which means to suck rocks (Ref. 89241); aepyptera: From the words aepy, meaning high and pteron, meaning fin or wing (Ref. 10294).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 淡水 居於水底的; pH range: 6.0 - 7.3. 溫帶; 4°C - 19°C (Ref. 89241); 42°N - 31°N
North America: Atlantic Slope from Susquehanna River drainage in southeastern Pennsylvania to Neuse River drainage in North Carolina, USA; Mississippi River basin from Pennsylvania to Missouri and Arkansas south to Alabama, USA; Mobile Bay and Pascagoula River drainages in Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, USA.
北美洲: 來自賓州東南方的 Susquehanna 河流域到美國北卡羅萊州的 Neuse 河流域的大西洋斜坡; 密西西比河流域從賓州到密蘇里與阿肯色州南至美國阿拉巴馬州; 摩比灣與在喬治亞州，美國阿拉巴馬州與密西西比州的巴斯卡古拉河流域。
大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5723); common length : 12.1 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 12193); 最大年齡: 8 年 (Ref. 12193)
型態特徵 | 形態測量圖
Characterized by having oral disc narrower than head; teeth extremely degenerated; usually 52-59 trunk myomeres; coloration consisting of light tan to silver gray above, yellow or white below; and yellow or gray fins (Ref. 86798). Other adult diagnostic features: 7.5-17.8 cm TL and wet weight 0.9-3.0 g for individuals 8.2-12.0 cm TL. Body proportions, as percentage of TL (based on 166 specimens measuring 7.5-16.5 cm TL): prebranchial length, 6.9-13.0; branchial length, 8.4-12.8; trunk length, 42.8-57.3; tail length, 23.4-35.0; eye length, 0.9-2.1; disc length, 2.8-6.7. Urogenital papilla length, as a percentage of branchial length, in 71 spawning males measuring 10.2-14.6 cm TL, 23.1-60.0. Trunk myomeres, 53-62. Dentition: marginals, 63-67; supraoral lamina, 2 unicuspid teeth; infraoral lamina, 5-13 unicuspid teeth; 3-4 endolaterals on each side; endolateral formula, 2-1-2 with variations, including 1-1-1, 2-3-2 and 2-3-3; 2 rows of anterials; first row of anterials, 4-5 unicuspid teeth (some teeth may even be found on the anterior field between the supraoral lamina and the first row of anterials); 1-2 rows of exolaterals on each side; 0-1 row of posterials; first row of posterials, when present, may be complete (13% of individuals) or incomplete (87%) with 1-22 unicuspid teeth; transverse lingual lamina, undetermined number of unicuspid teeth, the median one of undetermined size; longitudinal lingual laminae each with an undetermined number of unicuspid teeth. Velar tentacles, 3-5, with tubercles. Body coloration (live) of spawning individuals, dorsal aspect mottled gray-brown and ventral aspect light silvery-yellow. Lateral line neuromast pigmentation unrecorded. Caudal fin pigmentation, darkly pigmented, but the extent of coverage has not been reported. Caudal fin shape, spade-like. Oral fimbriae number unrecorded. Oral papillae, 12-20 (Ref. 89241).
Freshwater, in streams and lakes (Ref. 89241). Inhabit clean, clear gravel riffles and runs of creeks and small rivers (Ref. 3814). In Delaware, occurs in small streams with relatively slow current, usually 0.03 m/s or less, with water temperatures throughout the year 4.0-19.0 °C, dissolved oxygen 5.6-14.0 ppm, and pH 6.0-7.3. In Kentucky, occurs in small to medium size, clear creeks with sand-gravel substrate, either among debris (adults) or in mud banks with silt deposits (ammocoetes) (Ref. 89241). Ammocoete larvae occur in spring-fed wetlands and quiet pools and backwaters of small, sandy or muddy bottom streams (Ref. 3814). Larval period varies from 2.5 to at least 5.4 yrs. Metamorphosis in early September and maybe even mid- to late August. In Maryland, metamorphosis has been reported as late as February (Ref. 89241). Adults enter riffle areas to spawn at 10-16°C water temperature (Ref. 10294). Non-parasitic (Ref. 3814). Fecundity, 572-3,816 eggs/female and relative fecundity, 373-687 eggs/g body weight. Egg diameter, 0.66-1.36 mm. In Delaware, spawning occurs at the end of March at a water temperature of 13.8 °C, dissolved oxygen 11.6 ppm, and pH 6.6. In Maryland, spawning occurs from 10 April to 10 May when the water reaches 16 °C. Both sexes participate in nest building. Stones up to 2.5 cm in diameter are moved using their oral disc. Nests are circular or oval, 15-2 cm in diameter and about 7 cm deep. They are built in streams 4.5-.3 m wide and 15-1 cm deep with a substrate of sand and fine gravel. From 2-5 lampreys share a nest. Up to two males will spawn with one female. Average size at hatching, 3.4 mm TL. Modal length at age 1 is 27-8 mm TL and at age 2 is 50 mm TL. Most growth occurs during the spring season, intermediate growth in summer and fall and very little during winter. In Kentucky, mean length at age 1 is 39 mm TL, at age 2 is 65 mm TL, and at age 3 is 89 mm TL (Ref. 89241).
棲息於乾淨的, 清澈的碎石激流與小溪與小河的小支流。 幼八目鰻出現在有泉源的窪地與小的, 沙的或泥底部溪流的靜止池水與洄水區。 (參考文獻 3814) 成魚進入急流沿岸區域到在 10-16 °C 水溫產卵.(參考文獻 10294) 非寄生.(參考文獻 3814)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
The female attaches with her oral disc to a rock at the upstream end of the nest. The male attaches to the back of her head using his oral disc and wraps his tail around her trunk region in such a way as to have each others urogenital papilla in close proximity and through muscular contraction of his body assists in the extrusion of the eggs. They vibrate
vigorously for a few seconds. This results in the release of their gametes and disturbance of the substrate, which partially buries the fertilized eggs (Ref. 89241). One female pairs up with up to two males (Ref. 89241).北美洲: 來自賓州東南方的 Susquehanna 河流域到美國北卡羅萊州的 Neuse 河流域的大西洋斜坡; 密西西比河流域從賓州到密蘇里與阿肯色州南至美國阿拉巴馬州; 摩比灣與在喬治亞州，美國阿拉巴馬州與密西西比州的巴斯卡古拉河流域。
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (20):183 p. (Ref. 3814)
IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)
無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 21 February 2012
CITES (Ref. 123416)
合作者照片Stamps, Coins Misc.聲音神經毒速度泳型鰓區Otoliths腦重體重比眼睛色素
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00117 (0.00051 - 0.00272), b=3.00 (2.80 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tmax=8; Fec=572).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .