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Salvelinus fontinalis  (Mitchill, 1814)

Brook trout
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Image of Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook trout)
Salvelinus fontinalis
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salvelinus: Old name for char; it is the same root of german "saibling" = little salmon (Ref. 45335);  fontinalis: fontinalis meaning living in springs (Ref. 1998).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 15 - 27 m (Ref. 3899).   溫帶; 0°C - 25°C (Ref. 35682); 61°N - 34°N, 124°W - 52°W (Ref. 86798)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

North America: native to most of eastern Canada from Newfoundland and Labrador to western side of Hudson Bay; south in Atlantic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins to Minnesota and northern Georgia (Applachian Mountains), USA; headwaters of Chattahoochee River (Gulf basin). Introduced widely in North America and temperate regions of other continents. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
北美洲: 從紐芬蘭到哈得遜灣的西邊大部分的加拿大東部; 南方在美國的大西洋,五大湖與密西西比河流域到明尼蘇達州與喬治亞州北部。 廣泛地在其他大陸的溫帶區域中引入。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 86.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 7248); common length : 26.4 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 12193); 最大体重: 8.0 kg (Ref. 100229); 最大年龄: 24 年 (Ref. 72501)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 3 - 4; 背的软条 (总数): 8-14; 臀棘 3-4; 臀鳍软条: 8 - 14; 脊椎骨: 58 - 62. Distinguished by the combination of dark green marbling on its back and dorsal fin and by the red spots with blue halos on its sides (Ref. 27547). Pelvic fins with axillary process; caudal nearly straight or with a shallow indentation (Ref. 27547). Color varies, but generally rather green to brownish on back, marked with paler vermiculations or marbling that extend onto the dorsal fin and sometimes the caudal; sides lighter than back, marked with numerous pale spots and some red spots, each of the latter surrounded by a blue halo; anal, pelvic and pectoral fins with a white leading edge followed by a dark stripe, the rest of the fins reddish (Ref. 27547). In spawning fish the lower sides and fins become red (Ref. 27547). Sea-run fish are dark green above with silvery sides, white bellies and very pale pink spots (Ref. 27547). Caudal fin with 19 rays (Ref. 2196).
区别的特徵为深绿色的大理石的组合在它的背面与背鳍了,而且藉由红色的斑点有蓝色的晕圈在它的侧边。 (参考文献 27547) 腹鳍有腋窝的羽翼突起; 尾部的几乎是直的或具有一个水浅的压痕.(参考文献 27547) 颜色改变, 但是通常相当绿色到褐色的背面, 有显着的较灰白的蠕虫爬迹形的装饰或者在背鳍之上延伸的大理石纹与有时尾鳍; 侧边颜色淡的超过被有显着的很多灰白的斑点与一些红色的斑点的背面,每后者被一个蓝色的晕圈包围了; 臀鳍、腹鳍而且胸鳍有跟随着一条黑的斑纹一个白色的前缘, 其它的鳍淡红的.(参考文献 27547) 在产卵鱼下面的侧边与鳍方面变成红色。 (参考文献 27547) 海洋回游的鱼是深绿色的上方有银色的侧边,白色的腹面与非常白粉红色的斑点。 (参考文献 27547) 尾鳍有 19个鳍条。 (参考文献 2196)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs in clear, cool, well-oxygenated creeks, small to medium rivers, and lakes (Ref. 5723, 86798). Nerito-pelagic (Ref. 58426). Anadromous in some populations (Ref. 86798). In its native range, general upstream movements have been observed in early spring, summer and late fall; downstream movements, in late spring and fall (Ref. 28546, 28548, 28549, 28550). Some fish, popularly known as salters, run to the sea in the spring as stream temperature rises, but never venture more than a few kilometers from river mouths. It may remain at sea for up to three months (Ref. 28546, 28549, 28551). Feeds on a wide range of organisms including worms, leeches, crustaceans, insects (chironomids, caddisflies, blackflies, mayflies, stoneflies and dragonflies (Ref. 5951), mollusks, fishes and amphibians (Ref. 3348, 10294); also small mammals (Ref. 1998). Stomachs of some individuals contained traces of plant remains (Ref. 1998). There are reports of introduced fish reaching 15 years of age in California, USA (Ref. 28545). Cultured for food and for stocking (Ref. 27547). Extensively used as an experimental animal (Ref. 1998). Marketed fresh and smoked; eaten fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved, and baked (Ref. 9988).

出现于清澈寒冷的,溶氧量高的小溪, 小型到中型的河 , 与湖。 (参考文献 5723,44894) 在它的原产地中,一般的向上游的运动曾经在初春, 夏天与秋天底观察; 在春末与秋天,顺流而下运动。 (参考文献 28546,28548,28549,28550) 一些鱼, 一般地知道咸水的, 当水流温度上升,在春天跑到海洋, 但是从不冒险尝试超过距离河口几公里。 他们可能保持在海上超过三个月。 (参考文献 28546,28549,28551) 吃宽范围的生物包括蠕虫,水蛭,甲壳动物,昆虫,软件动物,鱼與兩棲動物;(參考文獻 3348) 也小的哺乳動物.(參考文獻 1998) 一些個體的腹部包含了植物殘餘物的痕跡。 (參考文獻 1998) 有被在美國加州達到 15 歲的引入的魚的報告。 (參考文獻 28545) 養殖作為食用魚而且育種使用。 (參考文獻 27547) 廣泛地用作了一隻實驗的動物。 (參考文獻 1998) 在市場上銷售燻製或新鮮了; 油炸後食用, 火烤,煮沸,微波, 而且燒烤了。 (參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Courtship begins with a male attempting to drive a female toward suitable spawning gravel. A receptive female chooses a spot and digs a redd. While the female is digging, the male continues courtship activity, darting alongside the female and quivering, swimming over and under her and rubbing her with his fins; most of the time however, is spent driving off other males. When the redd is completed, the pair enter the nest and deposit eggs and milt. After spawning the female covers the eggs by sweeping small pebbles at the downstream edge of the redd upstream. Once the eggs are completely covered, she moves to the upstream end of the redd and begins digging a new redd (Ref. 27547).北美洲: 從紐芬蘭到哈得遜灣的西邊大部分的加拿大東部; 南方在美國的大西洋,五大湖與密西西比河流域到明尼蘇達州與喬治亞州北部。 廣泛地在其他大陸的溫帶區域中引入。 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 115185)

  不评价 

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  潜能有害之物




人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
FAO(养殖: 产生; 渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 1.5 - 10.7, mean 4.5 (based on 47 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00794 - 0.01096), b=3.02 (2.97 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=1-3; tmax=7).
Prior r = 0.34, 2 SD range = 0.13 - 0.87, log(r) = -1.08, SD log(r) = 0.47, Based on: 8 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.