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Oncorhynchus tshawytscha  (Walbaum, 1792)

Chinook salmon
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Oncorhynchus tshawytscha   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Chinook salmon)
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
Male picture by McDowall, R.M.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Salmoniformes (Salmons) > Salmonidae (Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Oncorhynchus: Greek, onyx, -ychos = nail + Greek, rhyngchos = snout (Ref. 45335);  tshawytscha: tshawytscha which is the vernacular name of this species in Kamchatka (Ref. 1998).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 375 m (Ref. 58426).   温带; 0°C - 25°C (Ref. 35682); 72°N - 27°N, 136°E - 109°W (Ref. 54251)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Arctic, Northwest to Northeast Pacific: drainages from Point Hope, Alaska to Ventura River, California, USA; occasionally strays south to San Diego in California, USA. Also in Honshu, Japan (Ref. 6793), Sea of Japan (Ref. 1998), Bering Sea (Ref. 2850) and Sea of Okhotsk (Ref. 1998). Found in Coppermine River in the Arctic. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
北极圈与太平洋: 来自点希望,阿拉斯加到 Ventura 河的流域, 美国加州; 迷途的鱼在美国加州南至圣地亚哥偶然地。 也在日本本州岛 (参考文献 6793) ,日本海 (参考文献 1998) ,白令海 (参考文献 2850) 与鄂霍次克海.(参考文献 1998) 在北极圈发现于科柏曼河河了。 引入后的一些国家报告不利的生态冲击。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 82.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 40637); common length : 70.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9258); 最大体重: 61.4 kg (Ref. 27547); 最大年龄: 9 年 (Ref. 12193)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 10-14; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 13 - 19; 脊椎骨: 67 - 75. Distinguished by the small black spots on the back and on the upper and lower lobes of the caudal fin, and the black gums of the lower jaw (Ref. 27547). Body fusiform, streamlined, noticeably laterally compressed in large adults, somewhat deeper than other species (Ref. 6885). Gill rakers wide-spaced and rough; pelvic fins with axillary process (Ref. 27547). Fish in the sea are dark greenish to blue black on top of head and back, silvery to white on the lower sides and belly; numerous small, dark spots along back and upper sides and on both lobes of caudal; gum line of lower jaw black (Ref. 27547). In fresh water, with the approach of the breeding condition, the fish change to olive brown, red or purplish, the color change being more marked in males than in females (Ref. 27547).
在背部与尾鳍的上、下叶上区别的特徵为小的黑色斑点了, 与下面颌的黑色树胶.(参考文献 27547) 身体纺锤型,简化, 显着侧扁在大的成鱼中, 略深于其他的种.(参考文献 6885) 鳃耙间隔大的与粗糙; 腹鳍有腋窝的羽翼突起.(参考文献 27547) 在海洋的鱼在头顶与背面上是黑的呈绿色到蓝色的黑色, 在下面的侧边与腹面上的银色到白色; 很多的小, 深色斑点沿着背面与上侧面与在双叶上尾部的; 下颌黑色的树胶线.(参考文献 27547) 在淡水中,藉由繁殖环境的方式,鱼变成黄褐色的,红色的或者带紫色的, 颜色改变作为在雄性中标示的更多超过在雌性中.(参考文献 27547)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults return to natal streams from the sea to spawn (Ref. 27547). Fry may migrate to the sea after only 3 months in fresh water, some may stay for as long as 3 years, but generally most stay a year in the stream before migrating (Ref. 27547). Some individuals remain close inshore throughout their lives, but some make extensive migrations (Ref. 27547, 44894). Also found in lakes (Ref. 1998). Possibly up to 375 m depth (Ref. 6793). Epipelagic (Ref. 58426). Food in streams is mainly terrestrial insects and small crustaceans; in the sea, major food items include fishes, crustaceans, and other invertebrates (Ref. 27547). Young are preyed upon by fishes and birds (such as mergansers and kingfishers); adults are prey of large mammals and large birds (Ref. 1998). Highly regarded game fish (Ref. 27547). Flesh is usually red, but some are white; the red meat commands a higher price (Ref. 27547). Marketed fresh, smoked, frozen, and canned. Eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved, and baked (Ref. 9988). Viscera said to contain high vitamin A content and used successfully as food for hatchery fish (Ref. 28971, 28977).

成鱼回到出生的溪流距离海洋产卵.(参考文献 27547) 鱼苗可能回游到海洋在只有 3个月之后在淡水中,一些可能停留长达 3 年, 但是在移动之前通常最在水流中停留一年.(参考文献 27547) 一些个体在他们的生命各处保持近岸,但是一些作广泛的回游。 (参考文献 27547,44894) 也发现于湖。 (参考文献 1998) 可能地向上到 375 公尺深。 (参考文献 6793) 在溪流的食物是主要陆栖的昆虫与小型甲壳动物; 在海洋中,主要的食物组成包括鱼,甲壳动物与其他的无脊椎动物。 (参考文獻 27547) 幼魚被魚與鳥 (例如秋沙鴨與魚狗) 捕食; 成魚是大哺乳動物與大的鳥捕食.(參考文獻 1998) 獲高度評價遊釣魚類。 (參考文獻 27547) 肉通常是紅色,但是一些是白色的; 紅色的肉具有較高的價格。 (參考文獻 27547) 在市場上銷售生鮮、煙燻﹐冷凍的﹐與罐裝的。 清蒸,油炸,火烤, 煮沸, 微波了, 而且燒烤了.(參考文獻 9988) 內臟說包含高含量的維他命 A 與成功地當作食物對於孵卵所魚是使用過的.(參考文獻 28971,28977) 這種的阿拉斯加州鮭魚漁場已經被檢定藉由海洋的總管職務會議 ( 當管理良好且族群能維持。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Adults migrate up to 4,827 km upstream to spawn (Ref. 6850). Migration from the sea begins in December so that the the first fish are near river mouths by spring (Ref. 27547). Once a female selects a spot, she begins to dig a nest, driving away other females during the period of nest building. The female is attended by a larger, dominant male and several smaller males who drive away other males. While the female digs the nest, the male courts her by coming to rest beside her and quivering; by swimming about over her, touching her dorsal fin with his body and fins; and occasionally nudging her side gently with his snout (Ref. 28978). Upon completion of the nest, the female drops into it and is immediately joined by the dominant male. The fish open their mouths, vibrate, and eggs and sperm are released. At this point smaller males may dart into the nest and release sperm. The female then quickly moves to the upstrem edge of the nest and begins to dig. The eggs are covered and a new nest is made. The whole process is repeated until the female releases all her eggs, which may take several days. The male then leaves the female and may mate with another female. The female guards the nest for as long as she can. Spent adults usually die a few days after spawning. (Ref. 1998, 27547). Reproductive strategy: synchronous ovarian organization, determinate fecundity (Ref. 51846).北极圈与太平洋: 来自点希望,阿拉斯加到 Ventura 河的流域, 美国加州; 迷途的鱼在美国加州南至圣地亚哥偶然地。 也在日本本州岛 (参考文献 6793) ,日本海 (参考文献 1998) ,白令海 (参考文献 2850) 与鄂霍次克海.(参考文献 1998) 在北极圈发现于科柏曼河河了。 引入后的一些国家报告不利的生态冲击。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 2011. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 663p. (Ref. 86798)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 115185)


CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated


  潜能有害之物 (Ref. 12257)


渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
FAO(养殖: 产生; 渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋



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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.7 - 8, mean 3.5 (based on 561 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.7 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tm=4; tmax=9; Fec=4,000).
Prior r = 0.38, 2 SD range = 0.14 - 0.99, log(r) = -0.97, SD log(r) = 0.48, Based on: 5 tgen, 1 tmax, 7 Fec records
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.