Mola mola, Ocean sunfish : fisheries
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Mola mola (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ocean sunfish
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Mola mola
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes) > Molidae (Molas or Ocean Sunfishes)
Etymology: Mola: Latin, mola, -ae = stone mill; because of the shape of this fish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 30 - 480 m (Ref. 86942), usually 30 - 70 m (Ref. 90102). 亚热带的; 12°C - 25°C (Ref. 37040); 75°N - 65°S, 180°W - 180°E

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Circumglobal: tropical and temperate zones of all oceans.
此鱼种出现在温暖的与所有海洋的温带。 东太平洋: 加拿大卑诗省 (参考文献 2850) 到秘鲁与智利.(参考文献 5530) 东大西洋: 斯堪的那维亚半岛到南非.(偶然地波罗海西部, 地中海) 西大西洋: 加拿大纽芬兰 (参考文献 7251) 到阿根廷.(参考文献 36453)

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 333 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 26340); 最大体重: 2.3 t (Ref. 47360)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 15-18; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 14 - 17. The scaleless body is covered with extremely thick, elastic skin. The caudal fin is replaced by a rudder-like structure called 'clavus'. Dorsal and anal fins very high with short base; in swimming, these fins are flapped synchronously from side to side and can propel the fish at surprisingly good speed. Pectorals small and rounded, directed upward (Ref. 6885). Mouth very small; teeth fused to form a parrot-like beak. Gills 4, a slit behind the last; gill openings reduced to a small hole at the base of the pectoral fins. Gas bladder absent in adults.
无鳞片的身体被覆盖着非常厚又有弹性的皮肤。 尾鳍被称为 '紫色垂直条' 的像舵一样的结构取代。 背鳍与臀鳍很高的具有短的基底; 在游泳,这些鳍同步地被拍打从一边到另一边而且能以令人惊讶好的速度推进鱼。 胸鳍小与圆形的, 方向朝上.(参考文献 6885) 嘴非常小的; 齿融合形成一个像鹦鹉一样的喙。 鳃 4, 一个裂缝在后最后的; 鳃裂在胸鳍的基底缩小成一个小的洞了。 气鳔不存在于成鱼。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Molas are distinguished for their distinct morphological characters which include reduced/fused caudal elements, presence of a clavus in place of the caudal fin, absence of a swim bladder and a degenerate, cartilaginous skeleton (Ref. 86435). Adults are found on slopes adjacent to deep water where they come in for shelter and for seeking cleaner fishes. They are usually shy. However, they may become familiar with divers in some locations (Ref. 48637). Individuals often drift at the surface while lying on its side but can swim actively and are capable of directional movements otherwise (Ref. 86435). They swim upright and close to the surface. The dorsal fin often protrudes above the water. Females are larger than males (Ref. 86435). This species has been filmed in 480 m depth with the help of a camera equipped with baits (Lis Maclaren, pers. comm. 2005). Adults eat fishes, mollusks, zooplankton, jellyfish, crustaceans and brittle stars (Ref. 4925, 5951, 48637). A live colony of the cirripede Lepas anatifera were found attached to the anterior portion of the sunfish's esophagus that was stranded in the south coast of Terceira Island, Azores Archipelago in 2004. This association has apparent advantages for the goose barnacles such as a regular intake of food and protection both from hydrodynamic hazards and from predators: but for the sunfish, it is not clear whether it is neutral, of advantage or causes feeding problems since the attachment may obstruct the sunfish's esophagus (Ref. 55063). The sunfish is registered as the heaviest bony fish and as the one with the most eggs in the Guinness Book of World Records (Ref. 6472). Generally this species is not used as food fish; some people consider it as a delicacy (Ref. 30573). The fish can be utilized fresh and can be broiled (Ref. 9988). Some parts of the fish are used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Molas may contain the same toxin as puffers and porcupine fish (Ref. 13513). They do not adapt well in captivity (Ref. 12382, 37040). Juveniles are victims of California sea lions in Monterey Bay (Ref. 37040).

鱼被发现于斜坡邻近深水域。 鱼为庇护所进来与为寻找清洁工鱼。 鱼通常是害羞。 然而,它可能在一些地点中熟悉潜水者。 (参考文献 48637) 当侧躺的时候,此鱼种时常漂流在水表面。 它直立地游泳而且接近表面。 背鳍时常伸出上方水。 此鱼种已经在 480 公尺深被具备有诱饵的相机的帮忙薄膜(李 Maclaren , pers. Comm。 2005)。 此鱼种吃鱼,软件动物,浮游动物,水母,甲壳动物与海星。 (参考文献 4925,48637) 蔓脚类动物 Lepas anatifera 的一個活集群被發現在 2004 年被擱淺於 Terceira 島的南部海岸亞速群島列島的被依附於的翻車魚的食道的前部; 一從水動力學危險與掠食者兩者都為鵝藤壺鄰近明顯的利益例如食物與保護的一個一般攝取: 但是對於翻車魚,它不是清澈的是否它是中性, 利益或者引起攝取食物的問題由於附著可能阻隔翻車魚的食道.(參考文獻 55063) 魚被登記當最重的硬骨魚而且具有在金氏世界記錄中最多的卵.(參考文獻 6472) 通常這種不被作為食用魚; 一些人考慮它作為一個佳餚。 (參考文獻 30573) 魚可能是生鮮利用而且能被火烤。 (參考文獻 9988) 魚的一些部份被用於中藥材。 (參考文獻 12166) Molas 可能包含如同河豚與二齒魨一般的毒素。 (參考文獻 13513) 魚適應得不好在繁殖場。 (參考文獻 12382,37040) 稚魚在蒙德勒海灣是加州海獅的受害者。 (參考文獻 37040)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Produces very numerous and small eggs; 300 million eggs found in a 1.5 m long female (Ref. 4711). Oocytes in the ovaries develop in different stages suggesting Mola mola as a multiple spawner (Ref. 86440). This is the largest clutch estimate for this species (Ref. 53596).此鱼种出现在温暖的与所有海洋的温带。 东太平洋: 加拿大卑诗省 (参考文献 2850) 到秘鲁与智利.(参考文献 5530) 东大西洋: 斯堪的那维亚半岛到南非.(偶然地波罗海西部, 地中海) 西大西洋: 加拿大纽芬兰 (参考文献 7251) 到阿根廷.(参考文献 36453)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Tortonese, E., 1990. Molidae. p. 1077-1079. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6952)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 125652)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A4bd); Date assessed: 07 June 2011

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  有毒 (Ref. 13513)





人类利用

渔业: 低经济
FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

更多信息

俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Nutrients
Mass conversion
合作者
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声音
神经毒
速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

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网络资源

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公众的水族馆 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.3 - 20.5, mean 10.2 °C (based on 1286 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6562   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02455 (0.01041 - 0.05786), b=3.02 (2.81 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tmax = 8 (in captivity); Fec=300 million (batch fecundity)).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 20 [7, 54] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.23 [0.67, 2.57] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [16.7, 21.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.269 [0.114, 0.589] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.2 [16.6, 96.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 3.37 [0.84, 14.13] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.447 [0.268, 0.776] mg/100g (wet weight);