Mola mola, Ocean sunfish : fisheries
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Mola mola (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ocean sunfish
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Mola mola
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes) 魨形目 (Puffers and filefishes) > Molidae (Molas or Ocean Sunfishes) 翻車魨科 (Molas or Ocean Sunfishes)
Etymology: Mola: Latin, mola, -ae = stone mill; because of the shape of this fish (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 30 - 480 m (Ref. 86942), usually 30 - 70 m (Ref. 90102). 亞熱帶的; 12°C - 25°C (Ref. 37040); 75°N - 65°S, 180°W - 180°E

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Circumglobal: tropical and temperate zones of all oceans.
所有海洋的熱帶與溫帶區域。 東太平洋: 加拿大卑詩省 (參考文獻 2850) 到祕魯與智利.(參考文獻 5530) 東大西洋: 斯堪的那維亞半島到南非.(偶然地波羅海西部, 地中海) 西大西洋: 加拿大紐芬蘭 (參考文獻 7251) 到阿根廷.(參考文獻 36453)

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 333 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 26340); 最大體重: 2.3 t (Ref. 47360)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 15-18; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 14 - 17. The scaleless body is covered with extremely thick, elastic skin. The caudal fin is replaced by a rudder-like structure called 'clavus'. Dorsal and anal fins very high with short base; in swimming, these fins are flapped synchronously from side to side and can propel the fish at surprisingly good speed. Pectorals small and rounded, directed upward (Ref. 6885). Mouth very small; teeth fused to form a parrot-like beak. Gills 4, a slit behind the last; gill openings reduced to a small hole at the base of the pectoral fins. Gas bladder absent in adults.
無鱗片的身體被覆蓋著非常厚又有彈性的皮膚。 尾鰭被稱為 '紫色垂直條' 的像舵一樣的結構取代。 背鰭與臀鰭很高的具有短的基底; 在游泳,這些鰭同步地被拍打從一邊到另一邊而且能以令人驚訝好的速度推進魚。 胸鰭小與圓形的, 方向朝上.(參考文獻 6885) 嘴非常小的; 齒融合形成一個像鸚鵡一樣的喙。 鰓 4, 一個裂縫在後最後的; 鰓裂在胸鰭的基底縮小成一個小的洞了。 氣鰾不存在於成魚。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Molas are distinguished for their distinct morphological characters which include reduced/fused caudal elements, presence of a clavus in place of the caudal fin, absence of a swim bladder and a degenerate, cartilaginous skeleton (Ref. 86435). Adults are found on slopes adjacent to deep water where they come in for shelter and for seeking cleaner fishes. They are usually shy. However, they may become familiar with divers in some locations (Ref. 48637). Individuals often drift at the surface while lying on its side but can swim actively and are capable of directional movements otherwise (Ref. 86435). They swim upright and close to the surface. The dorsal fin often protrudes above the water. Females are larger than males (Ref. 86435). This species has been filmed in 480 m depth with the help of a camera equipped with baits (Lis Maclaren, pers. comm. 2005). Adults eat fishes, mollusks, zooplankton, jellyfish, crustaceans and brittle stars (Ref. 4925, 5951, 48637). A live colony of the cirripede Lepas anatifera were found attached to the anterior portion of the sunfish's esophagus that was stranded in the south coast of Terceira Island, Azores Archipelago in 2004. This association has apparent advantages for the goose barnacles such as a regular intake of food and protection both from hydrodynamic hazards and from predators: but for the sunfish, it is not clear whether it is neutral, of advantage or causes feeding problems since the attachment may obstruct the sunfish's esophagus (Ref. 55063). The sunfish is registered as the heaviest bony fish and as the one with the most eggs in the Guinness Book of World Records (Ref. 6472). Generally this species is not used as food fish; some people consider it as a delicacy (Ref. 30573). The fish can be utilized fresh and can be broiled (Ref. 9988). Some parts of the fish are used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Molas may contain the same toxin as puffers and porcupine fish (Ref. 13513). They do not adapt well in captivity (Ref. 12382, 37040). Juveniles are victims of California sea lions in Monterey Bay (Ref. 37040).

魚被發現於鄰近深水域的斜坡。 魚為庇護所進來與為尋找清潔工魚。 魚通常是害羞。 然而,它可能在一些地點中熟悉潛水者。 (參考文獻 48637) 當側躺的時候,此魚種時常漂流在水表面。 它直立地游泳而且接近表面。 背鰭時常伸出上方水。 此魚種已經在 480 公尺深被具備有誘餌的相機的幫忙薄膜(李 Maclaren , pers. Comm。 2005)。 此魚種吃魚,軟體動物,浮游動物,水母,甲殼動物與海星。 (參考文獻 4925,5951,48637) 蔓腳類動物 Lepas anatifera 的一個活集群被發現在 2004 年被擱淺於 Terceira 島的南部海岸亞速群島列島的被依附於的翻車魚的食道的前部; 一從水動力學危險與掠食者兩者都為鵝藤壺鄰近明顯的利益例如食物與保護的一個一般攝取: 但是對於翻車魚,它不是清澈的是否它是中性, 利益或者引起攝取食物的問題由於附著可能阻隔翻車魚的食道.(參考文獻 55063) 魚被登記當最重的硬骨魚而且具有在金氏世界記錄中最多的卵.(參考文獻 6472) 通常這種不被作為食用魚; 一些人考慮它作為一個佳餚。 (參考文獻 30573) 魚可能是生鮮利用而且能被火烤。 (參考文獻 9988) 魚的一些部份被用於中藥材。 (參考文獻 12166) Molas 可能包含如同河豚與二齒魨一般的毒素。 (參考文獻 13513) 魚適應得不好在繁殖場。 (參考文獻 12382,37040) 稚魚在蒙德勒海灣是加州海獅的受害者。 (參考文獻 37040)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Produces very numerous and small eggs; 300 million eggs found in a 1.5 m long female (Ref. 4711). Oocytes in the ovaries develop in different stages suggesting Mola mola as a multiple spawner (Ref. 86440). This is the largest clutch estimate for this species (Ref. 53596).所有海洋的熱帶與溫帶區域。 東太平洋: 加拿大卑詩省 (參考文獻 2850) 到祕魯與智利.(參考文獻 5530) 東大西洋: 斯堪的那維亞半島到南非.(偶然地波羅海西部, 地中海) 西大西洋: 加拿大紐芬蘭 (參考文獻 7251) 到阿根廷.(參考文獻 36453)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Tortonese, E., 1990. Molidae. p. 1077-1079. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6952)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 125652)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A4bd); Date assessed: 07 June 2011

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  有毒 (Ref. 13513)





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟
FAO - 漁業: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.3 - 20.5, mean 10.2 °C (based on 1286 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6562   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02455 (0.01041 - 0.05786), b=3.02 (2.81 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tmax = 8 (in captivity); Fec=300 million (batch fecundity)).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 20 [7, 54] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.23 [0.67, 2.57] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [16.7, 21.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.269 [0.114, 0.589] g/100g ; Selenium = 40.2 [16.6, 96.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 3.37 [0.84, 14.13] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.447 [0.268, 0.776] mg/100g (wet weight);