Epinephelus morio, Red grouper : fisheries, gamefish, aquarium

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Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes, 1828)

Red grouper
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Epinephelus morio   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification / Names Nombres comunes | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes(Género, Especie) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecología

; marino asociado a arrecife; no migratorio; rango de profundidad 5 - 330 m (Ref. 13442), usually 70 - 330 m (Ref. 13442). Subtropical; 35°N - 27°S, 98°W - 33°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribución Países | Áreas FAO | Ecosistemas | Ocurrencias, apariciones | Point map | Introducciones | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to southern Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Bermuda; strays occur north to Massachusetts.

Length at first maturity / Tamaño / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm 54.4, range 35 - 98 cm
Max length : 125 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 26340); common length : 50.0 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 5217); peso máximo publicado: 23.0 kg (Ref. 9710); edad máxima reportada: 25 años (Ref. 5222)

Short description Morfología | Morfometría

Espinas dorsales (total): 11; Radios blandos dorsales (total): 16-17; Espinas anales 3; Radios blandos anales: 8 - 10. Color of head and body dark reddish brown, shading to pink or reddish below. Opercle with 3 flat spines, the middle one being the largest. Vertical fins angulate in larger fish. Pelvic fins shorter than pectorals and inserted slightly behind ventral and pectoral-fin base. Bases of soft dorsal and anal fins covered with scales and thick skin. No saddle on caudal peduncle. Interspinous membranes not incised (Ref. 26938); head length 2.3-2.5 times in SL; convex interorbital; subangular preopercle, serrae at angle slightly enlarged; straight upper edge of operculum; posterior and anterior nostrils subequal (Ref. 89707).

Biología     Glosario (por ej. epibenthic)

Adults occur mainly over rocky and muddy bottoms. Uncommon around coral reefs. Usually rest on the bottom (Ref. 9710). Juveniles may be found in shallow water, but adults are usually taken from depths of 70-330 m (Ref. 13442). Feed on a wide variety of fishes and invertebrates. Are protogynous hermaphrodites (Ref. 55367). Most females transform to males between ages 7 to 14. Susceptible to red tide toxin (Ptychodiscus brevi) (Ref. 5222). Marketed fresh or frozen. The world record for hook and line, 39 lbs., from Cape Canaveral, Florida (Ref. 13442).

Life cycle and mating behavior Madurez | Reproducción | Puesta | Huevos | Fecundidad | Larva

Sex change occurs at 75.5 cm TL and 9.5 years of age (Ref. 55367).

Main reference Upload your references | Referencias | Coordinador : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Colaboradores

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)

  Vulnerable, ver lista roja de la UICN (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 20 November 2016

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Other (Ref. 5222)





Human uses

Pesquerías: comercial; pesca deportiva: si; Acuario: Acuarios públicos
FAO - pesquerías: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Más información

Nombres comunes
Sinónimos
Metabolismo
Despredadores
Ecotoxicología
Reproducción
Madurez
Puesta
Agregación para la puesta
Fecundidad
Huevos
Egg development
Age/Size
Crecimiento
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morfometría
Morfología
Larva
Dinámica larvaria
Reclutamiento
Abundancia
BRUVS
Referencias
Acuicultura
Perfil de acuicultura
Razas
Genética
Frecuencias de alelos
heritabilidad
Enfermedades
Procesamiento
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Colaboradores
Imágenes
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sonidos
Ciguatera
Velocidad
Tipo de natación
Superficie branquial
Otolitos
Cerebros
Visión

Herramientas

Special reports

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Fuentes de Internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Género, Especie | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - pesquerías: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Bases de datos nacionales | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Acuarios públicos | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Árbol de la vida | Wikipedia: Go, búsqueda | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Expediente Zoológico

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.5 - 25.7, mean 19.1 °C (based on 233 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00928 - 0.02149), b=3.01 (2.89 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
Nivel trófico (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 8.9 (6.9 - 10.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
Resiliencia (Ref. 120179):  Medio, población duplicada en un tiempo mínimo de 1.4-4.4 años (K=0.1-0.18; tm=4-6; tmax=25; Fec=1.4 million).
Prior r = 0.60, 95% CL = 0.40 - 0.90, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 9.44 [4.59, 23.53] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.575 [0.278, 1.121] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.6, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.15 [0.08, 0.28] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.2 [10.9, 45.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 78.8 [18.2, 292.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.852 [0.499, 1.401] mg/100g (wet weight);