Epinephelus morio, Red grouper : fisheries, gamefish, aquarium

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Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes, 1828)

Red grouper
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Epinephelus morio   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) 鱸形目 (Groupers) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 非迁移的; 深度上下限 5 - 330 m (Ref. 13442), usually 70 - 330 m (Ref. 13442). 亞熱帶的; 35°N - 27°S, 98°W - 33°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to southern Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Bermuda; strays occur north to Massachusetts.
西大西洋: 美國北卡羅萊那州到巴西南部, 包括墨西哥灣,加勒比海與百慕達群島; 迷途的魚出現北至麻薩諸塞州。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 54.4, range 35 - 98 cm
Max length : 125 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 26340); common length : 50.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5217); 最大体重: 23.0 kg (Ref. 9710); 最大年龄: 25 年 (Ref. 5222)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 11; 背的软条 (总数): 16-17; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8 - 10. Color of head and body dark reddish brown, shading to pink or reddish below. Opercle with 3 flat spines, the middle one being the largest. Vertical fins angulate in larger fish. Pelvic fins shorter than pectorals and inserted slightly behind ventral and pectoral-fin base. Bases of soft dorsal and anal fins covered with scales and thick skin. No saddle on caudal peduncle. Interspinous membranes not incised (Ref. 26938); head length 2.3-2.5 times in SL; convex interorbital; subangular preopercle, serrae at angle slightly enlarged; straight upper edge of operculum; posterior and anterior nostrils subequal (Ref. 89707).
头部与身体红黑色的褐色的颜色, 颜色变化成粉红或下面淡红的。 鳃盖有作为最大的 3根平坦的棘,一个中央的。 垂直的鳍有角的在较大的鱼中。 腹鳍短于胸鳍而且些微地插入后面腹的与胸鳍基底。 软背鳍与臀鳍的基底覆盖着鳞片与厚的皮肤了。 没有鞍斑在尾梗上。 棘间膜不呈锯齿状的。 (参考文献 26938)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults occur mainly over rocky and muddy bottoms. Uncommon around coral reefs. Usually rest on the bottom (Ref. 9710). Juveniles may be found in shallow water, but adults are usually taken from depths of 70-330 m (Ref. 13442). Feed on a wide variety of fishes and invertebrates. Are protogynous hermaphrodites (Ref. 55367). Most females transform to males between ages 7 to 14. Susceptible to red tide toxin (Ptychodiscus brevi) (Ref. 5222). Marketed fresh or frozen. The world record for hook and line, 39 lbs., from Cape Canaveral, Florida (Ref. 13442).

主要生存在岩石的上与泥底部。 罕见珊瑚礁的周围。 通常停留在底部上面。 (参考文献 9710) 稚鱼可能被发现于浅水区,但是成鱼通常被取自深度 70-330 公尺。 (参考文献 13442) 吃各式各样的鱼与无脊椎动物。 一个雌性先熟的雌雄同体.(参考文献 55367) 大多数的雌性对在 7 到 14 岁之间的雄性转换。 易受红色的潮毒素 ( Ptychodiscus brevi) 。 (参考文献 5222) 生鲜或冷冻地在市场上销售。 世界为一支钓, 39个磅记录, 从岬 Canaveral ,佛羅里達。 (參考文獻 13442)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Sex change occurs at 75.5 cm TL and 9.5 years of age (Ref. 55367).西大西洋: 美國北卡羅萊那州到巴西南部, 包括墨西哥灣,加勒比海與百慕達群島; 迷途的魚出現北至麻薩諸塞州。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 125652)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 20 November 2016

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

另外地 (Ref. 5222)





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周边海洋

更多信息

俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
年龄范围
成长
体长-体重
体长-体长
体长-频率
形态测量图
型态特徵
仔鱼
稚鱼动力学
入添量
丰度
BRUVS
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Nutrients
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
声音
神经毒
速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

工具

特别资料

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网络资源

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - 渔业: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公众的水族馆 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.5 - 25.7, mean 19.1 °C (based on 233 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00928 - 0.02149), b=3.01 (2.89 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 8.9 (6.9 - 10.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.1-0.18; tm=4-6; tmax=25; Fec=1.4 million).
Prior r = 0.60, 95% CL = 0.40 - 0.90, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 9.44 [4.59, 23.53] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.575 [0.278, 1.121] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.6, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.15 [0.08, 0.28] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.2 [10.9, 45.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 78.8 [18.2, 292.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.852 [0.499, 1.401] mg/100g (wet weight);