Epinephelus morio, Red grouper : fisheries, gamefish, aquarium

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Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes, 1828)

Red grouper
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Epinephelus morio   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification / Names ຊື່ສາມັນ | ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ | Catalog of Fishes(ຕະກຸນ, ຊະນິດ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range ນິເວດວິທະຍາ

; ສັດທະເລ ກ່ຽວກັນຫີນ; ບໍ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍ; ລະດັບຄວາມເລິກ 5 - 330 m (Ref. 13442), usually 70 - 330 m (Ref. 13442). Subtropical; 35°N - 27°S, 98°W - 33°W (Ref. 5222)

ການແຜ່ກະຈາຍ ປະເທດ | ເຂດ FAO | ລະບົບນິເວດ | ການປະກົດຕົວ | Point map | ການແນະນຳ | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to southern Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Bermuda; strays occur north to Massachusetts.

Length at first maturity / ຂະໜາດ / ນ້ຳໜັກ / Age

Maturity: Lm 54.4, range 35 - 98 cm
Max length : 125 cm TL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 26340); common length : 50.0 cm TL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 5217); ນ້ຳໜັກສູງສຸດທີ່ເຄຍຈັດພີມມາ: 23.0 kg (Ref. 9710); ອາຍຸສູງສຸດທີ່ເຄຍລາຍງານມາ: 25 ປີ (Ref. 5222)

Short description ສະລີລະວິທະຍາ | ການວັດແທກຮູບຮ່າງລັກສະນະພາຍນອກຂອງດິນ,ສັດ,ປາ…

ຄີ (ໜາມ)ແຂງຢູ່ຫຼັງປາ (ທັງໝົດ): 11; ຄີຫຼັງຂອງປາ (ຄີອ່ອນ) (ທັງໝົດ): 16-17; ຄີ(ໜາມ) ແຂງຢູ່ຄີກົ້ນປາ ກຸ່ມປາກະດູກແຂງ ຄວາມຖີ່ຂອງກຸ່ມຖ່າຍທອດພັນ ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຈາກທະເລໄປຫານ້ຳຈືດ ແລະນ້ຳຈືດຫາທະເລ ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍຈາກທະເລແລະໄປໄຂ່ຢູ່ນ້ຳຈືດ ຄີກົ້ນຂອງປາ ສັດທີ່ມີກະດູກສັນຫັຼງ ການຖ່າຍທອດທາງກຳມະພັນຈາກພໍ່ແມ່ຫາລູກ 3; ຄີກົ້ນຂອງປາ: 8 - 10. Color of head and body dark reddish brown, shading to pink or reddish below. Opercle with 3 flat spines, the middle one being the largest. Vertical fins angulate in larger fish. Pelvic fins shorter than pectorals and inserted slightly behind ventral and pectoral-fin base. Bases of soft dorsal and anal fins covered with scales and thick skin. No saddle on caudal peduncle. Interspinous membranes not incised (Ref. 26938); head length 2.3-2.5 times in SL; convex interorbital; subangular preopercle, serrae at angle slightly enlarged; straight upper edge of operculum; posterior and anterior nostrils subequal (Ref. 89707).

ຊີວະສາດ     ຄຳແປສັບ (ຕ.ຢ. epibenthic)

Adults occur mainly over rocky and muddy bottoms. Uncommon around coral reefs. Usually rest on the bottom (Ref. 9710). Juveniles may be found in shallow water, but adults are usually taken from depths of 70-330 m (Ref. 13442). Feed on a wide variety of fishes and invertebrates. Are protogynous hermaphrodites (Ref. 55367). Most females transform to males between ages 7 to 14. Susceptible to red tide toxin (Ptychodiscus brevi) (Ref. 5222). Marketed fresh or frozen. The world record for hook and line, 39 lbs., from Cape Canaveral, Florida (Ref. 13442).

Life cycle and mating behavior ການຈະເລີນເຕັມໄວ | ການສືບພັນ | ການວາງໄຂ່ | ໄຂ່ | ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ | ຕົວອ່ອນ

Sex change occurs at 75.5 cm TL and 9.5 years of age (Ref. 55367).

Main reference Upload your references | ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ | ຜູ້ປະສານງານ : Heemstra, Phillip C. | ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)


CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Other (Ref. 5222)





Human uses

ການປະມົງ: ເປັນສີນຄ້າ; ຊະນິດປາທີ່ຖືກນຳໃຊ້ເຂົ້າໃນການຫາເພື່ອເປັນເກມກິລາ: ແມ່ນ; ຕູ້ປາ: ບ່ອນວາງສະແດງສັນນ້ຳຂອງລັດ
FAO - ການປະມົງ: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | ທະເລອ້ອມຂ້າງພວກເຮົາ

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ຊື່ສາມັນ
ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ
ການເຜົາໃໝ້ພະລັງງານໂດຍປ່ຽນທາດອາຫານໃນຮ່າງກາຍໃຫ້ກາຍເປັນຊີ້ນແລະໜັງ
ຜູ້ລ້າ
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Length-frequencies
ການວັດແທກຮູບຮ່າງລັກສະນະພາຍນອກຂອງດິນ,ສັດ,ປາ…
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ແຫຼ່ງອີນເຕີເນັດ

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.5 - 25.7, mean 19.1 °C (based on 233 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00928 - 0.02149), b=3.01 (2.89 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
ຊັ້ນເຂດຮ້ອນ (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 8.9 (6.9 - 10.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
ຄວາມຢືດຢຸ່ນ (Ref. 120179):  ຂະໜາດກາງ, ປະຊາກອນຕຳ່ສຸດທີ່ໃຊ້ເວລາສອງເທົ່າ 1.4 - 4.4 ປີ (K=0.1-0.18; tm=4-6; tmax=25; Fec=1.4 million).
Prior r = 0.60, 95% CL = 0.40 - 0.90, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 9.44 [4.59, 23.53] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.575 [0.278, 1.121] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.6, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.15 [0.08, 0.28] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.2 [10.9, 45.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 78.8 [18.2, 292.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.852 [0.499, 1.401] mg/100g (wet weight);