Epinephelus morio, Red grouper : fisheries, gamefish, aquarium

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Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes, 1828)

Red grouper
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Epinephelus morio   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes(Genre, Espèce) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Écologie

; marin rcifal; non migrateur; profondeur 5 - 330 m (Ref. 13442), usually 70 - 330 m (Ref. 13442). Subtropical; 35°N - 27°S, 98°W - 33°W (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to southern Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Bermuda; strays occur north to Massachusetts.

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 54.4, range 35 - 98 cm
Max length : 125 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 26340); common length : 50.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 5217); poids max. publié: 23.0 kg (Ref. 9710); âge max. reporté: 25 années (Ref. 5222)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Épines dorsales (Total): 11; Rayons mous dorsaux (Total): 16-17; Épines anales 3; Rayons mous anaux: 8 - 10. Color of head and body dark reddish brown, shading to pink or reddish below. Opercle with 3 flat spines, the middle one being the largest. Vertical fins angulate in larger fish. Pelvic fins shorter than pectorals and inserted slightly behind ventral and pectoral-fin base. Bases of soft dorsal and anal fins covered with scales and thick skin. No saddle on caudal peduncle. Interspinous membranes not incised (Ref. 26938); head length 2.3-2.5 times in SL; convex interorbital; subangular preopercle, serrae at angle slightly enlarged; straight upper edge of operculum; posterior and anterior nostrils subequal (Ref. 89707).

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Adults occur mainly over rocky and muddy bottoms. Uncommon around coral reefs. Usually rest on the bottom (Ref. 9710). Juveniles may be found in shallow water, but adults are usually taken from depths of 70-330 m (Ref. 13442). Feed on a wide variety of fishes and invertebrates. Are protogynous hermaphrodites (Ref. 55367). Most females transform to males between ages 7 to 14. Susceptible to red tide toxin (Ptychodiscus brevi) (Ref. 5222). Marketed fresh or frozen. The world record for hook and line, 39 lbs., from Cape Canaveral, Florida (Ref. 13442).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Sex change occurs at 75.5 cm TL and 9.5 years of age (Ref. 55367).

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborateurs

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 125652)

  Vulnérable, voir Liste Rouge IUCN (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 20 November 2016

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

Other (Ref. 5222)





Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: commercial; pêche sportive: oui; Aquarium: Aquariums publics
FAO - pêcheries: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Plus d'informations

Noms communs
Synonymes
Métabolisme
Prédateurs
Écotoxicologie
Reproduction
Maturité
Frai
Rassemblement de ponte
Fécondité
Œufs
Développement de l'œuf
Taille/Âge
Croissance
Longueur-poids
Longueur-longueur
Fréquences de longueurs
Morphométrie
Morphologie
Larves
Dynamique des populations larvaires
Recrutement
Abondance
BRUVS
Références
Aquaculture
Profil d'aquaculture
Souches
Génétique
Fréquences alléliques
Héritabilité
Pathologies
Traitement
Nutrients
Mass conversion
Collaborateurs
Images
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Sons
Ciguatera
Vitesse
Type de nage
Surface branchiale
Otolithes
Cerveaux
Vision

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Sources Internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Genre, Espèce | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - pêcheries: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: génôme, nucléotide | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Bases de données nationales | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Aquariums publics | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Arbre de Vie | Wikipedia: aller à, chercher | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.5 - 25.7, mean 19.1 °C (based on 233 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00928 - 0.02149), b=3.01 (2.89 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 8.9 (6.9 - 10.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
Résilience (Ref. 120179):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (K=0.1-0.18; tm=4-6; tmax=25; Fec=1.4 million).
Prior r = 0.60, 95% CL = 0.40 - 0.90, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 9.44 [4.59, 23.53] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.575 [0.278, 1.121] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.6, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.15 [0.08, 0.28] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.2 [10.9, 45.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 78.8 [18.2, 292.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.852 [0.499, 1.401] mg/100g (wet weight);