Epinephelus morio, Red grouper : fisheries, gamefish, aquarium

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Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes, 1828)

Red grouper
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Epinephelus morio   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Perciformes/Serranoidei (Groupers) 鱸形目 (Groupers) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 非遷移的; 深度上下限 5 - 330 m (Ref. 13442), usually 70 - 330 m (Ref. 13442). 亞熱帶的; 35°N - 27°S, 98°W - 33°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to southern Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Bermuda; strays occur north to Massachusetts.
西大西洋: 美國北卡羅萊那州到巴西南部, 包括墨西哥灣,加勒比海與百慕達群島; 迷途的魚出現北至麻薩諸塞州。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 54.4, range 35 - 98 cm
Max length : 125 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 26340); common length : 50.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5217); 最大體重: 23.0 kg (Ref. 9710); 最大年齡: 25 年 (Ref. 5222)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11; 背的軟條 (總數): 16-17; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8 - 10. Color of head and body dark reddish brown, shading to pink or reddish below. Opercle with 3 flat spines, the middle one being the largest. Vertical fins angulate in larger fish. Pelvic fins shorter than pectorals and inserted slightly behind ventral and pectoral-fin base. Bases of soft dorsal and anal fins covered with scales and thick skin. No saddle on caudal peduncle. Interspinous membranes not incised (Ref. 26938); head length 2.3-2.5 times in SL; convex interorbital; subangular preopercle, serrae at angle slightly enlarged; straight upper edge of operculum; posterior and anterior nostrils subequal (Ref. 89707).
頭部與身體紅黑色的褐色的顏色, 顏色變化成粉紅或下面淡紅的。 鰓蓋有作為最大的 3根平坦的棘,一個中央的。 垂直的鰭有角的在較大的魚中。 腹鰭短於胸鰭而且些微地插入後面腹的與胸鰭基底。 軟背鰭與臀鰭的基底覆蓋著鱗片與厚的皮膚了。 沒有鞍斑在尾梗上。 棘間膜不呈鋸齒狀的。 (參考文獻 26938)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults occur mainly over rocky and muddy bottoms. Uncommon around coral reefs. Usually rest on the bottom (Ref. 9710). Juveniles may be found in shallow water, but adults are usually taken from depths of 70-330 m (Ref. 13442). Feed on a wide variety of fishes and invertebrates. Are protogynous hermaphrodites (Ref. 55367). Most females transform to males between ages 7 to 14. Susceptible to red tide toxin (Ptychodiscus brevi) (Ref. 5222). Marketed fresh or frozen. The world record for hook and line, 39 lbs., from Cape Canaveral, Florida (Ref. 13442).

主要生存在岩石的上與泥底部。 罕見珊瑚礁的周圍。 通常停留在底部上面。 (參考文獻 9710) 稚魚可能被發現於淺水區,但是成魚通常被取自深度 70-330 公尺。 (參考文獻 13442) 吃各式各樣的魚與無脊椎動物。 一個雌性先熟的雌雄同體.(參考文獻 55367) 大多數的雌性對在 7 到 14 歲之間的雄性轉換。 易受紅色的潮毒素 ( Ptychodiscus brevi) 。 (參考文獻 5222) 生鮮或冷凍地在市場上銷售。 世界為一支釣, 39個磅記錄, 從岬 Canaveral ,佛羅里達。 (參考文獻 13442)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Sex change occurs at 75.5 cm TL and 9.5 years of age (Ref. 55367).西大西洋: 美國北卡羅萊那州到巴西南部, 包括墨西哥灣,加勒比海與百慕達群島; 迷途的魚出現北至麻薩諸塞州。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 125652)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 20 November 2016

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

另外地 (Ref. 5222)





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO - 漁業: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | 周邊海洋

更多資訊

俗名
同種異名
新陳代謝
捕食者
生態毒物學
繁殖
成熟度
產卵場
產卵群集
孕卵數

卵發育
年龄/大小
成長
長度-重量
長度-長度
長度-頻率
形態測量圖
型態特徵
仔魚
稚魚動力學
入添量
豐度
BRUVS
參考文獻
養殖
養殖資訊
品種
遺傳學
基因序列
遺傳率
疾病
加工
Nutrients
Mass conversion
合作者
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Stamps, Coins Misc.
聲音
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速度
泳型
鰓區
Otoliths
腦重體重比
眼睛色素

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網路資源

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 檢查 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - 漁業: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因組, 核甘 | GloBI | GoMexSI (interaction data) | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 國家資料庫 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公眾的水族館 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 樹狀分類階層 | Wikipedia: , 搜尋 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 動物學的記錄

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.5 - 25.7, mean 19.1 °C (based on 233 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00928 - 0.02149), b=3.01 (2.89 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 8.9 (6.9 - 10.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.1-0.18; tm=4-6; tmax=25; Fec=1.4 million).
Prior r = 0.60, 95% CL = 0.40 - 0.90, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 9.44 [4.59, 23.53] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.575 [0.278, 1.121] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.6, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.15 [0.08, 0.28] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.2 [10.9, 45.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 78.8 [18.2, 292.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.852 [0.499, 1.401] mg/100g (wet weight);