Alosa aestivalis, Blueback shad : fisheries

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Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill, 1814)

Blueback shad
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Alosa aestivalis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Alosa aestivalis (Blueback shad)
Alosa aestivalis
Picture by Flescher, D.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Mitchill.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 5 - 55 m (Ref. 5951).   亞熱帶的; 47°N - 27°N, 84°W - 60°W (Ref. 117456)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Cape Breton, Nova Scotia south to the St. John's River, Florida; also in lower parts of rivers (Ref. 188). Introduced in reservoirs in several states, and in the upper Tennessee River system in Tennessee, USA (Ref. 117456, 86798).
西大西洋: 新斯科舍省的布里敦角南至佛羅里達的聖約翰河; 也在河川下游中。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 7251); common length : 27.5 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 188); 最大体重: 200.00 g (Ref. 7251); 最大年龄: 8 年 (Ref. 12193)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 15-20; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 15 - 21; 脊椎骨: 47 - 53. Moderately compressed, belly with distinct keel of scutes. Upper jaw with a distinct notch; lower jaw rising steeply within mouth; minute teeth present at front of jaws (disappearing with age). Lower gill rakers 41 to 52 (fewer in fishes under 10 cm standard length), slender. Back dark blue, sometimes bluish-grey; a dark spot on shoulder (Ref. 188). Peritoneum black (Ref. 7251). Branchiostegal rays 7 (Ref. 4639).
中等侧扁, 腹面有鳞甲的明显龙骨脊。 上颌有一个明显的凹槽; 下颌陡升在嘴里面; 细小的齿出现在颚的前面。 (随着年龄而消失) 下鳃耙 41 到 52(比较少的在 10 公分标准长度下面的鱼中), 细长的。 背面深蓝色, 有时蓝灰色的; 在肩上的一个深色斑点.(参考文献 188) 腹膜黑色.(参考文献 7251) 鳃条骨 7.(参考文献 4639)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and reservoirs (Ref. 117456). Adults are found in saltwater except during the spawning season and occur up to at least 200 km offshore (Ref. 117456). Forms schools and possibly wintering near the bottom and out from the coast, approaching the shore in the late spring. Feeds on small fishes, copepods and small shrimps. Spawns in brackish- or freshwaters of rivers, arriving in coastal waters a month or so later than A. pseudoharengus (in April at Chesapeake Bay, apparently when the water is above 70° C and later further north). Eggs are essentially pelagic, demersal in still water (Ref. 4639). Larvae are found in fresh and brackish rivers (Ref. 4639). Juveniles leave fresh and brackish nursery grounds at about 5 cm, migrating downstream (Ref. 4639). In freshwater habitat, this species usually occurs in current over rocky bottom (Ref. 86798). Marketed mostly fresh and salted (Ref. 188). Parasites found are acanthocephalan and nematodes (Ref. 37032).

形成鱼群而且可能地冬季时接近底部与在外距离海岸, 在春末接近海岸。 捕食小鱼,桡脚类的动物与小的虾。 产卵于河的半咸淡水或淡水中, 抵达沿岸水域一个月或者如此迟于 A. pseudoharengus.(四月时在切萨皮克海湾, 显然地当水是上方 70个 ° C 的时候与稍后到更北方) 卵在静止的水域中实质上大洋性, 底栖。 (参考文献 4639) 仔鱼被发现于淡水与半咸淡的河。 (参考文献 4639) 稚鱼离开淡水与半咸淡的水繁殖场在大约 5 公分时, 移动向下游。 (参考文献 4639) 市场上大部份生鲜地销售而盐腌的.(参考文献 188) 发现的寄生虫是棘头虫与线虫类。 (参考文献 37032)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Upriver movement to spawning areas occur in late afternoon or at night (Ref. 4639).西大西洋: 新斯科舍省的布里敦角南至佛羅里達的聖約翰河; 也在河川下游中。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  次级保育类动物, 见 IUCN 红皮书 (VU) (A2b); Date assessed: 13 October 2011

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.5 - 24.7, mean 23.7 (based on 86 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00390 - 0.01775), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.18; tm=4; Fec=45,800).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Low.