Alosa aestivalis, Blueback shad : fisheries

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Alosa aestivalis (Mitchill, 1814)

Blueback shad
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Alosa aestivalis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Alosa aestivalis (Blueback shad)
Alosa aestivalis
Picture by Flescher, D.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) 鯡形目 (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) 鯡科 (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Mitchill.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 5 - 55 m (Ref. 5951).   亞熱帶的; 47°N - 27°N, 84°W - 60°W (Ref. 117456)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Cape Breton, Nova Scotia south to the St. John's River, Florida; also in lower parts of rivers (Ref. 188). Introduced in reservoirs in several states, and in the upper Tennessee River system in Tennessee, USA (Ref. 117456, 86798).
西大西洋: 新斯科舍省的布里敦角南至佛羅里達的聖約翰河; 也在河川下游中。

大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 7251); common length : 27.5 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 188); 最大體重: 200.00 g (Ref. 7251); 最大年齡: 8 年 (Ref. 12193)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 15-20; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 15 - 21; 脊椎骨: 47 - 53. Moderately compressed, belly with distinct keel of scutes. Upper jaw with a distinct notch; lower jaw rising steeply within mouth; minute teeth present at front of jaws (disappearing with age). Lower gill rakers 41 to 52 (fewer in fishes under 10 cm standard length), slender. Back dark blue, sometimes bluish-grey; a dark spot on shoulder (Ref. 188). Peritoneum black (Ref. 7251). Branchiostegal rays 7 (Ref. 4639).
中等側扁, 腹面有鱗甲的明顯龍骨脊。 上頜有一個明顯的凹槽; 下頜陡升在嘴裡面; 細小的齒出現在顎的前面。 (隨著年齡而消失) 下鰓耙 41 到 52(比較少的在 10 公分標準長度下面的魚中), 細長的。 背面深藍色, 有時藍灰色的; 在肩上的一個深色斑點.(參考文獻 188) 腹膜黑色.(參考文獻 7251) 鰓條骨 7.(參考文獻 4639)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and reservoirs (Ref. 117456). Adults are found in saltwater except during the spawning season and occur up to at least 200 km offshore (Ref. 117456). Forms schools and possibly wintering near the bottom and out from the coast, approaching the shore in the late spring. Feeds on small fishes, copepods and small shrimps. Spawns in brackish- or freshwaters of rivers, arriving in coastal waters a month or so later than A. pseudoharengus (in April at Chesapeake Bay, apparently when the water is above 70° C and later further north). Eggs are essentially pelagic, demersal in still water (Ref. 4639). Larvae are found in fresh and brackish rivers (Ref. 4639). Juveniles leave fresh and brackish nursery grounds at about 5 cm, migrating downstream (Ref. 4639). In freshwater habitat, this species usually occurs in current over rocky bottom (Ref. 86798). Marketed mostly fresh and salted (Ref. 188). Parasites found are acanthocephalan and nematodes (Ref. 37032).

形成魚群而且可能地冬季時接近底部與在外距離海岸, 在春末接近海岸。 捕食小魚,橈腳類的動物與小的蝦。 產卵於河的半鹹淡水或淡水中, 抵達沿岸水域一個月或者如此遲於 A. pseudoharengus.(四月時在切薩皮克海灣, 顯然地當水是上方 70個 ° C 的時候與稍後到更北方) 卵在靜止的水域中實質上大洋性, 底棲。 (參考文獻 4639) 仔魚被發現於淡水與半鹹淡的河。 (參考文獻 4639) 稚魚離開淡水與半鹹淡的水繁殖場在大約 5 公分時, 移動向下游。 (參考文獻 4639) 市場上大部份生鮮地銷售而鹽醃的.(參考文獻 188) 發現的寄生蟲是棘頭蟲與線蟲類。 (參考文獻 37032)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Upriver movement to spawning areas occur in late afternoon or at night (Ref. 4639).西大西洋: 新斯科舍省的布里敦角南至佛羅里達的聖約翰河; 也在河川下游中。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2b); Date assessed: 13 October 2011

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




漁業: 商業性
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.5 - 24.7, mean 23.7 (based on 86 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00832 (0.00390 - 0.01775), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.18; tm=4; Fec=45,800).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Low.