Lớp phụ (Subclass) cá vây tia
(Perch-likes) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ Sống nổi và đáy; pH range: 6.0 - 9.0; dH range: 5 - 20; di cư trong nước ngọt (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu 1 - 7 m (Ref. 4967). Tropical; 11°C - 36°C (Ref. 3); 35°N - 9°S, 17°W - 36°E
Africa and Eurasia: South Morocco, Sahara, Niger-Benue system, rivers Senegal, Sassandra, Bandama, Boubo, Mé, Comoé, Bia, Ogun and Oshun, Volta system, Chad-Shari system (Ref. 5163), middle Congo River basin in the Ubangi, Uele (Ref. 55074), Itimbiri, Aruwimi (Ref. 55074, 106290), Lindi-Tshopo (Ref. 106290) and Wagenia Falls (Ref. 106245) in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lakes Albert (Ref. 55074) and Turkana, Nile system and Jordan system (Ref. 5163). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm 7.0, range 20 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 34290); common length : 30.0 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 34290); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: 300.00 g (Ref. 3799); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 7 các năm (Ref. 164)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 13 - 16; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 10-14; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 3; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 8 - 10. Diagnosis: upper profile of head not convex; lower pharyngeal bone about as long as broad, and with anterior lamella shorter than toothed area; median pharyngeal teeth not broadened; dorsal fin with 14-16 spines and 10-14 soft rays (mean 15, 12); 8-11 lower gillrakers; dark longitudinal band appears on flanks when agitated; no bifurcated dark vertical bars on flanks; dorsal and caudal fins not or feebly blotched (Ref. 53405). Body brownish-olivaceous with an iridescent blue sheen; lips bright green (Ref. 34290, 53405). Chest pinkish (Ref. 34290). Dorsal, caudal and anal fins brownish-olivaceous with yellow spots, dorsal and anal fins outlined by narrow orange band; "tilapian" spot large, extending from last spine to 4th soft ray and always bordered by yellow band (Ref. 34290, 53405). Specimens 2-14 cm SL with completely yellowish or greyish caudal fin without dots, but tend to develop a greyish caudal fin with dots of increasing size during development; above 14 cm SL, this species has greyish caudal fins with dots on entire caudal fin (Ref. 57660).
Highly adaptable and tolerates varying water qualities; can be found across a wide range of temperatures and salinities, even surviving marine conditions (Ref. 52307). Occasionally form schools; mainly diurnal. Prefer shallow, vegetated areas (Ref. 4967). Fry are common in marginal vegetation and juveniles are found in the seasonal floodplain. Herbivorous (Ref. 52307), feed on water plants and epiphyton, and some invertebrates. Substrate spawner (Ref. 28714, 52307). Parental care is very thorough and undertaken by both parties; large specimens may deposit 1000 eggs per spawn, preferably on hard surfaces; hatching occurs about 96 hours post spawning, and juveniles swim freely about 4-6 days later (Ref. 52307). Larvae develop in close association with substrate. Extended temperature range 6.5 - 42.5 °C, natural temperature range 10.5 - 36°C (Ref. 3).
Spawns in lake bottoms with pebbles or sand and abundant vegetation (Ref. 3). Lays adhesive eggs on the substratum which are guarded by both parents (Ref. 6298). Reported to deposit and guard eggs in shallow nest (Ref. 12069). Produces up to 1000 eggs (Ref. 1672).
Dunz, A.R. and U.K. Schliewen, 2013. Molecular phylogeny and revised classification of the haplotilapiine cichlid fishes formerly referred to as "Tilapia". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 68(1):64-80. (Ref. 93285)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Các nghề cá: Tính thương mại; Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Tính thương mại; Bể nuôi cá: Tính thương mại
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Các nguồn internet
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.01365 - 0.01927), b=2.98 (2.93 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 69278
): Trung bình, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 1.4 - 4.4 năm (K=0.2-0.5; tm=2-3; tmax=7; Fec = 715 - 1,147).
Prior r = 0.68, 2 SD range = 0.26 - 1.77, log(r) = -0.39, SD log(r) = 0.48, Based on: 7 K, 3 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .