Squalus acanthias, Picked dogfish : fisheries, gamefish

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Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, 1758

Picked dogfish
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Squalus acanthias   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Squalus acanthias
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Squaliformes (Bramble, sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Squalidae (Dogfish sharks)
Etymology: Squalus: Genus name from Latin 'squalus' meaning shark (Ref. 6885, 27436);  acanthias: Genus name from the Latin 'squalus' meaning shark; species name from the Greek 'akanthias' referring to the spines (Ref. 6885, 27436).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Squalus suckleyi (Girard, 1855) has been resurected by Ebert et al. (2010: Ref. 85328) in the North Pacific where it replaces Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, 1758.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 1460 m (Ref. 26346), usually 50 - 300 m (Ref. 43939).   溫帶; 7°C - 15°C (Ref. 247); 81°N - 57°S, 82°W - 171°W (Ref. 247)

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Northern and Southern Hemispheres, rare in the Atlantic Arctic. Not in the North Pacific (Ref. 119696). .All records from North Pacific refer to Squalus suckleyi (Girard, 1855) (Ref. 85328). Appendix II (northern hemisphere populations) of the Bonn Convention (2009).
西大西洋: 格陵蘭到阿根廷。 東大西洋: 冰島與莫曼斯克海岸 (俄國) 到南非, 包括地中海與黑海。 西太平洋: 白令海到紐西蘭。 來自外海的新幾內亞的報告是可疑的。 (參考文獻 6871) 東太平洋: 白令海到智利。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 81.4, range 69 - 100 cm
Max length : 95.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 119696); 122.0 cm (female); common length : 100.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. ); 最大体重: 9.1 kg (Ref. 11389); 最大年龄: 75 年 (Ref. 39247)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 2; 背的软条 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 0; 脊椎骨: 101 - 109. This moderately sized species is distinguished by the following set of characters: very slender body, abdomen width 7.2-9.2% TL; narrow head, width at mouth 7.9-10.2% TL; mouth width 1.7-2.2 times its horizontal prenarial length; moderately long snout, preoral length 2.2-2.5 times horizontal prenarial length, 8.5-9.8% TL; single-lobed anterior nasal flap; small dorsal fins, raked, first dorsal-fin height 1.1-1.3 times its inner margin length, second dorsal-fin height 0.7-0.9 times its inner margin length; origin of first dorsal-fin located just posterior to pectoral-fin free rear tips; exposed bases of dorsal-fin spines relatively narrow, 0.4-0.7% TL; short spine of first dorsal fin, exposed length 1.7-2.7% TL; pectoral-fin anterior margin 1.9-3.1 times its inner margin length; preventral caudal margin 1.9-2.6 times inner margin of pelvic fin; pale caudal fin with poorly demarcated, whitish margin, blackish caudal blotch at the apex of upper lobe, anterior margins of both lobes whitish in juveniles; dark caudal bar absent; dorsal and lateral surfaces of body bluish grey with an irregular array of moderately-large white spots; whitish ventrally; flank denticles tricuspid; monospondylous centra 41-45, precaudal centra 74-79, total centra 100-105 (Ref. 58446).
一只瘦的狗鲨具有一个狭窄的,尖的吻与独特的白色斑点;(参考文献 5578) 二背鳍具有无凹槽的大棘, 第一背鳍棘起点在胸鳍后顶端后面.(参考文献 247) 背面灰色的, 腹面白色的; 偶然地没有斑点.(参考文献 5578)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Possibly the most abundant living shark (Ref. 247). A demersal, inshore and offshore dogfish of the continental and insular shelf and upper slopes (Ref. 247, 11230, 119696). Usually near the bottom, but also in midwater and at the surface (Ref. 26346); occurs mainly between 10-200 m depth (Ref. 247). Males and gravid females usually found shallower than non-gravid females. Tolerates brackish water, often found in enclosed bays and estuaries. Reported to enter freshwater (Ref. 11980) but cannot survive there for more than a few hours (Ref. 247). Highly migratory species, used to be observed in large foraging schools with up to thousands of individuals, usually segregated by size and /or sex, with schools of large gravid females preferentially targeted by fisheries. Their latitudinal (north-south) and depth-related (nearshore-offshore) movements appear to be correlated with their preferred temperature (Ref. 247). Tagging experiments showed that populations in the northern North Sea and northwest Scotland made winter migrations to off Norway and summer migrations to Scotland (Ref. 88880, 88881). Transoceanic migrations recorded, but rare (Ref. 88864). Longevity in the northern Atlantic is about 35-50 years (Ref. 88882), but most live only 20-24 years (Ref. 88187). Growth is slow. At sexual maturity, males are 60-70 cm long, females 75-90 cm (Ref. 35388). Gestation period is 2 years (Ref. 36731). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Feeds on a diversity of prey, ranging from comb jellyfish, squid, mackarel and herring to a wide array of benthic fishes, shrimps, crabs and even sea cucumbers (Ref. 93252). The only species of horned sharks that can inflict toxins with its tail. Detects weak electric fields generated by potential prey (Ref. 10311). Utilized for human consumption, liver oil, vitamins, sand paper, leather, fertilizer, etc. (Ref. 247, 27436). Eaten fried, broiled, and baked (Ref. 9988).

可能最丰富活的鲨鱼.(参考文献 247) 一种近岸的与大陆与海岛大陆棚与上层斜坡的外海狗鲨.(参考文献 247,11230) 通常在底部的附近, 也在中层水域中而在表面.(参考文献 26346) 时常发现于封闭的海湾与河口。 (参考文献 247) 报告进入淡水 (参考文献 11980) 但是不能够在那里存活超过个小时.(参考文献 247) 鱼群主要地分离依大小与性别; 混合的鱼群也报告。 (参考文献 247) 主要吃硬骨鱼类,也捕食软件动物,甲壳动物与其他的无脊椎动物。 (参考文献 247) 成長慢。 在性成熟,雄性是 60-70 公分長, 雌性 75-90 公分.(參考文獻 35388) 妊娠期是 2 年。 (參考文獻 36731) 卵胎生的 (參考文獻 205), 1 到 20 幼魚在一胎.(參考文獻 247) 能施放的有角鯊魚的唯一的種毒素用它的尾部。 供人類食用, 肝油,維他命,沙子紙,皮革,肥料,等等.(參考文獻 247,27436) 油炸後食用, 烤的與烘乾的.(參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Ovoviviparous, with litters of 1 to 21 young (Ref. 247, 88865). Mating probably occurs in winter. Gestation period of 18 to 24 months, longest known of all chondrichthyans (Ref. 26346). Size at birth 18-30 cm (Ref. 26346). In the northeast Atlantic, pups are born in winter, with size at birth about 26-28 cm (Ref. 88864). Sex ratio at birth is 1:1. Gravid females congregate in enclosed shallow bays to give birth (Ref. 247). The mother shark experiences a series of rhythmic contractions, just like in mammals, and the young are delivered head first. Larger older females have bigger litters with larger pups; a female with 100 cm TL carries on average 4 times as many embryos compared to a 70 cm female and the former have higher survival rates than those born to small females (Ref. 4856, 88869, 88883).西大西洋: 格陵蘭到阿根廷。 東大西洋: 冰島與莫曼斯克海岸 (俄國) 到南非, 包括地中海與黑海。 西太平洋: 白令海到紐西蘭。 來自外海的新幾內亞的報告是可疑的。 (參考文獻 6871) 東太平洋: 白令海到智利。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Ebert, D.A., W.T. White, K.J. Goldman, L.J.V. Compagno, T.S. Daly-Engel and R.D. Ward, 2010. Resurrection and redescription of Squalus suckleyi (Girard, 1854) from the North Pacific, with comments on the Squalus acanthias subgroup (Squaliformes: Squalidae). Zootaxa 2612:22-40. (Ref. 85328)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated


  有毒的 (Ref. 4690)


渔业: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周边海洋



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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 4.2 - 18.7, mean 9.9 (based on 4651 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00282 (0.00231 - 0.00344), b=3.07 (3.01 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 12.2 (9.5 - 15.9) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 30 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增时间超过14 年 (rm=0.034; K=0.03-0.07; tm=10-30; tmax=75; Fec=1).
Prior r = 0.07, 95% CL = 0.04 - 0.12, Based on 7 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.