Oreochromis aureus, Blue tilapia : fisheries, aquaculture, aquarium, bait

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Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864)

Blue tilapia
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Oreochromis aureus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Cichliformes (Cichlids, convict blennies) 鱸形目 (Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) 麗魚科 (Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335);  aureus: From the Greek words oreos=of the mountains and chroma=color; aureus (Latin)=golden from aurum, gold (Ref. 79012)  More on author: Steindachner.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 5 - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ).   亞熱帶的; 8°C - 30°C (Ref. 2); 35°N - 10°N

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Africa and Eurasia: Jordan Valley, Lower Nile, Chad Basin, Benue, middle and upper Niger, Senegal River (Ref. 21). Introduced in the oasis of Azraq (Jordan) as well as in warm water ponds of USA, South and Central America and South East Asia. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.
非洲與歐亞大陸: Jordan 山谷,尼羅河下游,查德流域,貝努埃河,中央與尼日河上游,塞內加爾河.(參考文獻 21) 在 Azraq(Jordan) 的綠洲中引入以及在美國,南方與中美洲與亞洲東南部的溫暖水池塘中。 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 13 - 20 cm
Max length : 45.7 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 40637); common length : 16.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 12193); 最大体重: 2.0 kg (Ref. 40637)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 14 - 17; 背的软条 (总数): 11-15; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 8 - 11; 脊椎骨: 28 - 31. Diagnosis: Adults: narrow preorbital bone (depth max. 21.5% of head length in fishes up to 21.3cm SL); lower pharyngeal jaw with short blade; no enlargement of the jaws in mature fish (lower jaw not exceeding and usually less than 36.8% head length) (Ref. 2). Caudal without regular dark vertical stripes (Ref. 2, 53405, 54467), but with a broad pink to bright red distal margin (Ref. 2). Breeding males assume an intense bright metallic blue on the head, a vermilion edge to the dorsal fin and a more intense pink on the caudal margin (Ref. 2, 54467). Breeding females with the edges of dorsal and caudal fins in a paler more orange color (Ref. 2). Juveniles: upper line of head profile running upward from snout at sharp angle; lower pharyngeal bone nearly triangular, teeth numerous but not densely crowded; dorsal and anal fin striped, with stripes running obliquely on the soft dorsal and longitudinally on the caudal fin; black Tilapia-mark on soft dorsal present; body dark; lower lip developed from beneath (Ref. 54566).
鉴别: 成鱼: 狭窄的眶前骨;(深度在鱼的最大的 21.5% 的头长向上到 21.3 公分 SL) 低的咽颌有短的叶片; 在成熟的鱼 (下颌不超过而且通常少于 36.8% 头长) 中的颚没有增大.(参考文献 2) 尾部的没有一般的深色垂直的斑纹 (参考文献 2,54467), 但是有宽的粉红色到鲜红色末梢部的边缘.(参考文献 2) 繁殖期的雄性呈现一密集明亮的铁蓝色的在尾鳍边缘上的头部, 背鳍的一个朱红的边缘与一朵比较密集粉红色上.(参考文献 2,54467) 在一个较灰白的比较橘色的颜色中有背鳍与尾鰭鰭的邊緣的繁殖雌性.(參考文獻 2) 稚魚: 頭部輪廓的上面線流動的向上距離吻尖以銳利的角; 低的咽骨幾乎三角形, 齒很多的但是不濃密地擁擠; 背部的與臀鰭有斑紋的, 藉由在柔軟上斜向續接的斑紋背部的與縱向地在尾鰭上; 黑色的 吳郭魚 -標誌軟的之上背部的呈現; 身體深色的; 下唇發展從在.之下 (參考文獻 54566) 描述: 深的身體; 齒非常小的, 對於一個藻類捕食者 (參考文獻 52307) 是典型的, 在顎中的 3-5 列中, 雙尖的在最外者中, 在另一個中的三尖瓣.(參考文獻 2,54467) 鱗片圓形的 (參考文獻 367,2756,54408), 與深入部份的穗緣幾乎筆直地.(參考文獻 54408) 在 2-3 水平的系列中的在頰上的鱗片; 在胸鰭基底與腹鰭之間的 5-7 鱗片.(參考文獻 2,54467) 13.5-14.5 在腹鰭前的上面的側線之下的鱗片.(參考文獻 367) 在上、下側線之間的 2個鱗片.(參考文獻 367,2756) 上面的側線有 20-23個鱗片, 低的具有 14-18個鱗片.(參考文獻 367,2756) Microbranchiospines 位於弓的外部側邊之上 2 到 4.(參考文獻 2) 背鰭邊緣粗的了,而且在垂部之間的凹槽關閉在完全成熟的雄性中。 (參考文獻 364,54467) 持續背棘最長的。 (參考文獻 367,2756) 第三個臀鰭硬棘稍微短於最後的背棘 (參考文獻 2,2756,54467), 但是比較強壯的.(參考文獻 2,54467) 腹鰭不非常生產; 尾部的通常有圓角, 通常有鱗的只有在基底與在鰭的上、下部份上的鰭條之間; 生殖乳突成熟的雄魚錐形或有狹窄的兩裂邊緣.(參考文獻 2,54467) 體色 稚魚: 灰褐色到些微金.(參考文獻 52307) 標本 <10 公分有發展良好的 吳郭魚 -在軟的背鰭上的斑點.(參考文獻 2,52307,54467) 在尾鰭上有時有模糊的縱帶。 (參考文獻 2,3032) 成魚: 眼睛有被一條黑色橫帶越過的紅色的虹膜。 (參考文獻 2) 腹面區域灰白的銀灰色的.(參考文獻 2,367,3032,52307) 唇時常黑色的.(參考文獻 367) 下巴與胸可能是藍黑色的.(參考文獻 2,6465) 咽喉與腹面有時淡黃色的但是從不淡紅的.(參考文獻 2756) 銀色而深色的斑點在全身體分佈了。 (參考文獻 52307) 在被與情緒的州有關的身體 (參考文獻 2,3032,31256,52307) 上有時有一些縱帶。 (參考文獻 54467) 鰓蓋斑點通常存在的 (參考文獻 367,2756,54759), 但是可能完全地變成看不見.(參考文獻 367) 胸鰭略灰色的, 腹鰭黑色的.(參考文獻 367,2756) 背鰭 (參考文獻 2,2756,3032,52307,54467) 與尾鰭 (參考文獻 2,367,2756,3023,3032,6465,13851,51850,52307) 的上部有紅色的邊緣。 軟的背部與臀鰭, 而且通常也尾鰭, 有很多的灰白斑點.(參考文獻 2,2756,3032,31256,52307,54467,54759) 斑點背部的之上與臀鰭形成斜的列.(參考文獻 367) 背鰭垂部深色的, 從不紅色或灰白的.(參考文獻 51850) 雄性成魚灰色的-藍色, 藉由頭部, 從上嘴唇到眼睛, 綠褐色的, 向背部變得比較深色的; 追求雄性色彩豔麗的與在頭部 (參考文獻 52307) 上的鐵藍色的閃耀, 或密集鐵藍色的在頭部上,有時在身體上的較灰白的藍色, 在背部與更密集粉紅的尾部邊緣上具有一個朱紅色的邊緣.(參考文獻 2,6465,54467) 繁殖雌性有較灰白的, 背鰭與尾鰭鰭的比較橘色邊緣.(參考文獻 2,6465)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Cold tolerant (Ref. 23, 61, 55352), occuring at temperatures ranging from 8°-30°C (Ref. 2), tolerating up to 41 °C (Ref. 23). Tolerates fairly brackish conditions (Ref. 3, 23, 61, 2001, 6465, 54362). Forms schools; is sometimes territorial; inhabits warm ponds and impoundments as well as lakes and streams (Ref. 5723, 11028), in open water as well as among stones and vegetation (Ref. 11028). Feeds on phytoplankton and small quantities of zooplankton (Ref. 3, 61, 6465, 52307). Young fish have a more varied diet which includes large quantities of copepods and cladocerans (Ref. 2, 61, 6465), but they also take pieces of small invertebrates (Ref. 52307). Ovophilic, agamous (Ref. 52307), maternal mouthbrooder (Ref. 364, 52307). Sexual maturity in ponds reached at age of 5-6 months (Ref. 55352). Reproduces in both fresh and brackish water (Ref. 61, 5723). Good taste (Ref. 61).

寒冷的宽容 (参考文献 61,55352), 出现温度范围从 8个 °-30 °C.(参考文献 2) 容忍非常半咸淡的环境。 (参考文献 3,61,2001,6465,54362) 形成鱼群; 有时是具有领域性; 居住于温暖的池塘与圈围水域以及湖泊与溪流 (参考文献 5723,11028), 在开放的水域中以及在石头与植物之中.(参考文献 11028) 吃浮游植物与浮游动物的小量。 (参考文献 3,61,6465,52307) 幼鱼有一个更多的不同包括大量的桡脚类的动物与水蚤 (参考文献 2,61,6465) 的食性, 但是他們也帶小型無脊椎動物的塊.(參考文獻 52307) Ovophilic, 無性的 (參考文獻 52307) 又母親的口孵者.(參考文獻 364,52307) 在池塘的性成熟在 5-6 數個月的年齡達到了。 (參考文獻 55352) 繁殖在淡水與半鹹淡的水中.(參考文獻 61,5723) 好滋味.(參考文獻 61)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Nesting usually in shallow water weedy areas (Ref. 96). Males establish territory and dig a spawning pit (Ref. 2, 6465, 54601), using mouth and fins (Ref. 2), up to 60cm deep and 4-6m in diameter; a number of territories can often be found clustered together (Ref. 52307). Territories are defended by means of agressive behaviour (Ref. 6465), including lateral display, lateral biting and mouth-to-mouth combat (Ref. 2). Reproduction is stimulated by long photoperiods and inhibited by short daylengths (Ref. 54365). Reproduction requires a minimum temperature of about 20°C (Ref. 2). Males visit schools of females and attempt to attract a female spawning partner (Ref. 2, 52307). Courting behaviour in the nest consists of lateral display by both sexes with nipping and tail-flapping (Ref. 2). Eggs are deposited in single clutches, from several dozen to 100 eggs (Ref. 52307), and are taken into the females mouth as soon as they are fertilized (Ref. 2, 6465, 52307), with a peak spawning frequency around the 9-11th hour of light (Ref. 31140, 54365). One female may hold up to 2000 eggs in her mouth (Ref. 2). The female swims away to deeper water with the brood after spawning is complete (Ref. 2, 52307), while the male renews spawning activities with another female. Hatching occurs about 3 days after oviposition (Ref. 2). Incubation time varies with temperature, 13-14 days at 25-27°C (Ref. 2, 52307) or 8-10 days at 29°C (Ref. 144), and juveniles leave the mother's mouth when they are about 1.1cm in length (Ref. 54601). The young school near parent's head for a few days, reentering the mouth at any sign of danger or at a gesture of the female; parent-offspring relationship ceases after 5 days (Ref. 2).非洲與歐亞大陸: Jordan 山谷,尼羅河下游,查德流域,貝努埃河,中央與尼日河上游,塞內加爾河.(參考文獻 21) 在 Azraq(Jordan) 的綠洲中引入以及在美國,南方與中美洲與亞洲東南部的溫暖水池塘中。 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Kullander, Sven O. | 合作者

Trewavas, E., 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. British Mus. Nat. Hist., London, UK. 583 p. (Ref. 2)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 124695)

  不评价 

CITES

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  潜能有害之物 (Ref. 6465)





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 水族馆: 商业性; 诱饵: usually
FAO - 养殖: 产生; 渔业: landings; Publication: search | FishSource |

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网络资源

AFORO (otoliths) | Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - 养殖: 产生; 渔业: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01471 - 0.02469), b=2.98 (2.94 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.1   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  高度, 族群倍增时间少于 15个月 (K=0.48-0.58; tm<1).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 28 [12, 103] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.73 [0.62, 4.23] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.7, 18.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.428 [0.192, 1.000] g/100g ; Selenium = 67 [31, 139] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.69 [1.07, 25.03] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.01 [0.85, 6.93] mg/100g (wet weight);