Oreochromis aureus, Blue tilapia : fisheries, aquaculture, aquarium, bait

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Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864)

Blue tilapia
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Image of Oreochromis aureus (Blue tilapia)
Oreochromis aureus
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رده بندی / Names اسامي عام | مترادف | Catalog of Fishes(جنس, گونه ها) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Cichliformes (Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335);  aureus: From the Greek words oreos=of the mountains and chroma=color; aureus (Latin)=golden from aurum, gold (Ref. 79012).
More on author: Steindachner.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range بوم شناسي

; آب شيرين; لب شور موجوداتی که در محدوده وسیعی از آبهای آزاد از نزدیک بستر و یا روی کف بستر، در قسمت های میان آبی تا سطح آب و در برخی گونه ها با قابلیت پرواز، زندگی و تغذیه می کنند.; رود رو (Ref. 51243); تغييرات عمق 5 - ? m. Tropical; 8°C - 30°C (Ref. 2); 35°N - 10°N

پراكنش كشورها | مناطق سازمان خوار و بار جهاني (FAO) | Ecosystems | ظهور | Point map | معرفي | Faunafri

Africa and Eurasia: Jordan Valley, Lower Nile, Chad Basin, Benue, middle and upper Niger, Senegal River (Ref. 21). Introduced in the oasis of Azraq (Jordan) as well as in warm water ponds of USA, South and Central America and South East Asia. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / سن

Maturity: Lm 19.0, range 13 - 20 cm
Max length : 45.7 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 40637); common length : 16.0 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 12193); بيشينه وزن گزارش شده: 2.0 kg (Ref. 40637)

توصيف مختصر ريخت شناسي | ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري

خارهاي باله پشتي (کل): 14 - 17; شعاع نرم باله پشتي (کل): 11-15; خارهاي باله مخرجي 3; شعاع نرم باله مخرجي: 8 - 11; مهره ها: 28 - 31. Diagnosis: Adults: narrow preorbital bone (depth max. 21.5% of head length in fishes up to 21.3cm SL); lower pharyngeal jaw with short blade; no enlargement of the jaws in mature fish (lower jaw not exceeding and usually less than 36.8% head length) (Ref. 2). Caudal without regular dark vertical stripes (Ref. 2, 53405, 54467), but with a broad pink to bright red distal margin (Ref. 2). Breeding males assume an intense bright metallic blue on the head, a vermilion edge to the dorsal fin and a more intense pink on the caudal margin (Ref. 2, 54467). Breeding females with the edges of dorsal and caudal fins in a paler more orange color (Ref. 2). Juveniles: upper line of head profile running upward from snout at sharp angle; lower pharyngeal bone nearly triangular, teeth numerous but not densely crowded; dorsal and anal fin striped, with stripes running obliquely on the soft dorsal and longitudinally on the caudal fin; black Tilapia-mark on soft dorsal present; body dark; lower lip developed from beneath (Ref. 54566).

زيست شناسي     واژه نامه (بعنوان مثال epibenthic)

Cold tolerant (Ref. 23, 61, 55352), occuring at temperatures ranging from 8°-30°C (Ref. 2), tolerating up to 41 °C (Ref. 23). Tolerates fairly brackish conditions (Ref. 3, 23, 61, 2001, 6465, 54362). Forms schools; is sometimes territorial; inhabits warm ponds and impoundments as well as lakes and streams (Ref. 5723, 11028), in open water as well as among stones and vegetation (Ref. 11028). Feeds on phytoplankton and small quantities of zooplankton (Ref. 3, 61, 6465, 52307). Young fish have a more varied diet which includes large quantities of copepods and cladocerans (Ref. 2, 61, 6465), but they also take pieces of small invertebrates (Ref. 52307). Ovophilic, agamous (Ref. 52307), maternal mouthbrooder (Ref. 364, 52307). Sexual maturity in ponds reached at age of 5-6 months (Ref. 55352). Reproduces in both fresh and brackish water (Ref. 61, 5723). Good taste (Ref. 61).

Life cycle and mating behavior بلوغ | تولید مثل | تخم ریزی | تخم ها | Fecundity | توزاد ( لارو)

Nesting usually in shallow water weedy areas (Ref. 96). Males establish territory and dig a spawning pit (Ref. 2, 6465, 54601), using mouth and fins (Ref. 2), up to 60cm deep and 4-6m in diameter; a number of territories can often be found clustered together (Ref. 52307). Territories are defended by means of agressive behaviour (Ref. 6465), including lateral display, lateral biting and mouth-to-mouth combat (Ref. 2). Reproduction is stimulated by long photoperiods and inhibited by short daylengths (Ref. 54365). Reproduction requires a minimum temperature of about 20°C (Ref. 2). Males visit schools of females and attempt to attract a female spawning partner (Ref. 2, 52307). Courting behaviour in the nest consists of lateral display by both sexes with nipping and tail-flapping (Ref. 2). Eggs are deposited in single clutches, from several dozen to 100 eggs (Ref. 52307), and are taken into the females mouth as soon as they are fertilized (Ref. 2, 6465, 52307), with a peak spawning frequency around the 9-11th hour of light (Ref. 31140, 54365). One female may hold up to 2000 eggs in her mouth (Ref. 2). The female swims away to deeper water with the brood after spawning is complete (Ref. 2, 52307), while the male renews spawning activities with another female. Hatching occurs about 3 days after oviposition (Ref. 2). Incubation time varies with temperature, 13-14 days at 25-27°C (Ref. 2, 52307) or 8-10 days at 29°C (Ref. 144), and juveniles leave the mother's mouth when they are about 1.1cm in length (Ref. 54601). The young school near parent's head for a few days, reentering the mouth at any sign of danger or at a gesture of the female; parent-offspring relationship ceases after 5 days (Ref. 2).

مآخذ اصلی Upload your references | مراجع | هماهنگ كننده : Kullander, Sven O. | همكاران

Trewavas, E., 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. British Mus. Nat. Hist., London, UK. 583 p. (Ref. 2)

وضعيت در فهرست قرمز IUCN (Ref. 125652)


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر برای انسان ها

  Potential pest (Ref. 6465)

استفاده انسانی

ماهي گيري – شيلات: با ارزش تجاري بالا; آبزي پروري: تجاري; آكواريوم: تجاري; طعمه: usually
FAO - آبزي پروري: production; ماهي گيري – شيلات: landings; Publication: search | FishSource |

اطلاعات بيشتر

طول - وزن
طول - طول
نوسانات طولی
ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري
ريخت شناسي
توزاد ( لارو)
پويايي لاروي
آبزي پروري
نمايه آبزي پروري
تواتر آلل ها
بيماري ها
Mass conversion
عکس ها
Stamps, Coins Misc.
نوع شناگری
منطقه آبششي


گزارش های ويژه

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منابع اينترنتي

AFORO (otoliths) | Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | فيش واچر را ببينيد | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: جنس, گونه ها | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - آبزي پروري: production; ماهي گيري – شيلات: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: ژنوم, نوکلئوتيد | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | پايگاه هاي داده ها | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: برو, جستجو | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01467 - 0.02476), b=2.98 (2.94 - 3.02), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  2.1   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
جهندگی (Ref. 120179):  زياد, كمينه زمان لازم براي دو برابر شدن جمعيت ، كمتر از 15 ماه (K=0.48-0.58; tm<1).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):   (0 of 100) .
طبقه قيمت (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 28 [12, 103] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.73 [0.62, 4.23] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.2 [15.7, 18.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.428 [0.192, 1.000] g/100g ; Selenium = 67 [31, 139] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.69 [1.07, 25.03] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.01 [0.85, 6.93] mg/100g (wet weight);