Platichthys flesus, European flounder : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European flounder
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Platichthys flesus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Platichthys flesus (European flounder)
Platichthys flesus
Picture by Stergiou, K.I.

Classification / Names Nombres comunes | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes(Género, Especie) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Platichthys: Greek, platys = flat + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecología

; marino; agua dulce; salobre demersal; pH range: 7.5 - 8.2; catadromo (Ref. 51243); rango de profundidad 1 - 100 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 5°C - 25°C (Ref. 13614); 72°N - 30°N, 32°W - 45°E (Ref. 54704)

Distribución Países | Áreas FAO | Ecosistemas | Ocurrencias, apariciones | Point map | Introducciones | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: coastal and brackish waters of western Europe and from the White Sea to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 4705, Ref. 51442). Introduced into the USA and Canada accidentally through transport in ballast water (Ref. 1739). Asia: Iran (Ref. 39702).

Length at first maturity / Tamaño / Peso / Age

Maturity: Lm 24.4, range 14 - 30 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 35388); common length : 50.0 cm TL macho / no sexado; (Ref. 30578); peso máximo publicado: 2.9 kg (Ref. 104349); edad máxima reportada: 15 años (Ref. 3944)

Short description Morfología | Morfometría

Espinas dorsales (total): 0; Radios blandos dorsales (total): 53-62; Espinas anales 0; Radios blandos anales: 37 - 46. Flatfish, its disc width less than half its length (Ref. 3137). Small mouth (Ref. 3137, Ref. 51442). Eyes mostly (70%) on right side (Ref. 3137, 51442), 79% of dextrally oriented flounder (n = 1076) in Bos, 2000 (Ref. 57574). Rough skin, especially along the lateral line and the basis of the dorsal and anal fin (Ref. 3137). Lateral line straight, slightly rounded over pectorals (Ref. 3137). Green-olive colored (Ref. 51442), the bottom side white (Ref. 3137). Irregular reddish spots on the eye side (Ref. 35388).

Biología     Glosario (por ej. epibenthic)

Migratory fish, which is most of the year found in estuaries (Ref. 51442). Adults occur on mud and sand bottom in shallow water, at sea and brackish; often entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). During winter, adults retreat to deeper, warmer waters, where they spawn in spring (Ref. 30193). The growing larvae are moving to the coast (Ref. 51442). Larvae and early juveniles use selective tidal transport to migrate upstream rivers (Ref. 57575) using a range of triggers such as salinity, prey density and water temperature (Ref. 57573, 57574). Juveniles live in shallow coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 57574), which are also the summer feeding grounds for the adults (Ref. 30193). Juveniles of less than a year old feed on plankton and larvae of insects, juveniles of more than a year and adults feed on benthic fauna (Ref. 51442), including small fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 30193). Nocturnal and burrowing (Ref. 30193). Marketed fresh and frozen; can be steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Worms and mollusks are excellent baits for line fishing (Ref. 30578).

Life cycle and mating behavior Madurez | Reproducción | Puesta | Huevos | Fecundidad | Larva

Spawns in the water column (Ref. 7471). Produces 400,000 to 2,000,000 eggs for each female (Ref. 51442).

Main reference Upload your references | Referencias | Coordinador : Amaoka, Kunio | Colaboradores

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 04 February 2009

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless





Human uses

Pesquerías: comercial; Acuicultura: experimental; pesca deportiva: si
FAO - Acuicultura: produccin; pesquerías: landings, species profile; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Herramientas

Special reports

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Fuentes de Internet

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Género, Especie | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - Acuicultura: produccin; pesquerías: landings, species profile; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Bases de datos nacionales | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Acuarios públicos | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Árbol de la vida | Wikipedia: Go, búsqueda | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Expediente Zoológico

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.2 - 14.2, mean 10.2 °C (based on 862 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00698 - 0.00904), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nivel trófico (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.2 (2.9 - 6.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 18 growth studies.
Resiliencia (Ref. 120179):  Medio, población duplicada en un tiempo mínimo de 1.4-4.4 años (K=0.22-0.3; tm=2-5; tmax=15; Fec= 2 million).
Prior r = 0.56, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.86, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 36.7 [16.8, 84.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.339 [0.179, 0.635] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.5 [14.3, 18.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.686 [0.284, 1.662] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.8 [7.2, 52.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.76 [1.78, 32.82] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.593 [0.371, 0.971] mg/100g (wet weight);