Platichthys flesus, European flounder : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European flounder
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Platichthys flesus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Platichthys flesus (European flounder)
Platichthys flesus
Picture by Stergiou, K.I.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Platichthys: Greek, platys = flat + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; pH range: 7.5 - 8.2; 降海洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - 100 m (Ref. 35388).   温带; 5°C - 25°C (Ref. 13614); 72°N - 30°N, 32°W - 45°E (Ref. 54704)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: coastal and brackish waters of western Europe and from the White Sea to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 4705, Ref. 51442). Introduced into the USA and Canada accidentally through transport in ballast water (Ref. 1739). Asia: Iran (Ref. 39702).
东大西洋: 海岸的与欧洲西部与从白海到地中海的半咸淡水域与黑海.(参考文献 4705, 参考文献 51442) 在压舱水经过传送偶然地引入美国与加拿大中了。 (参考文献 1739) 亚洲: 伊朗.(参考文献 39702)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 24.4, range 14 - 30 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 35388); common length : 50.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 30578); 最大体重: 2.9 kg (Ref. 104349); 最大年龄: 15 年 (Ref. 3944)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 53-62; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 37 - 46. Flatfish, its disc width less than half its length (Ref. 3137). Small mouth (Ref. 3137, Ref. 51442). Eyes mostly (70%) on right side (Ref. 3137, 51442), 79% of dextrally oriented flounder (n = 1076) in Bos, 2000 (Ref. 57574). Rough skin, especially along the lateral line and the basis of the dorsal and anal fin (Ref. 3137). Lateral line straight, slightly rounded over pectorals (Ref. 3137). Green-olive colored (Ref. 51442), the bottom side white (Ref. 3137). Irregular reddish spots on the eye side (Ref. 35388).
比目鱼 , 它的体盘宽度少于一半它的长度。 (参考文献 3137) 小的嘴.(参考文献 3137, 参考文献 51442) 眼大部份 (70%) 在右边 (参考文献 3137,51442) 上, 在不中的 79% 的右边导向的挣扎 (n=1076), 2000.(参考文献 57574) 粗糙的皮肤, 尤其沿着侧线与背鳍与臀鳍的基础。 (参考文献 3137) 侧线直线, 略圆的胸鳍之上。 (参考文献 3137) 绿色-橄榄色色彩 (参考文献 51442), 底部侧边白色.(参考文献 3137)在眼側邊上的不規則的淡紅斑點.(參考文獻 35388)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Migratory fish, which is most of the year found in estuaries (Ref. 51442). Adults occur on mud and sand bottom in shallow water, at sea and brackish; often entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). During winter, adults retreat to deeper, warmer waters, where they spawn in spring (Ref. 30193). The growing larvae are moving to the coast (Ref. 51442). Larvae and early juveniles use selective tidal transport to migrate upstream rivers (Ref. 57575) using a range of triggers such as salinity, prey density and water temperature (Ref. 57573, 57574). Juveniles live in shallow coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 57574), which are also the summer feeding grounds for the adults (Ref. 30193). Juveniles of less than a year old feed on plankton and larvae of insects, juveniles of more than a year and adults feed on benthic fauna (Ref. 51442), including small fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 30193). Nocturnal and burrowing (Ref. 30193). Marketed fresh and frozen; can be steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Worms and mollusks are excellent baits for line fishing (Ref. 30578).

回游的鱼, 是发现于河口的全年大部分时间。 (参考文献 51442) 在冬天期间,成鱼对比较深又比较热的水域撤退, 在那里它们产卵于春天中.(参考文献 30193) 成长的仔鱼被移动到海岸。 (参考文献 51442) 成长的仔鱼被移动到海岸。 (参考文献 51442) 仔鱼与早期的稚鱼使用选择的潮汐传送移动使用多种的板机例如盐度, 猎物密度与水温的向上游的河 (参考文献 57575) 。 (参考文献 57573,57574) 稚鱼生活于沿岸浅水区与河口 (参考文献 57574), 对于成鱼也那是夏天覓食場.(參考文獻 30193) 稚魚少於一年之久吃昆蟲的浮游生物與仔魚, 超過一年的稚魚與成魚吃底棲的動物相 (參考文獻 51442), 包括小魚與無脊椎動物.(參考文獻 30193) 夜行的而且掘洞穴.(參考文獻 30193) 在市場上銷售生鮮和冷凍; 能被蒸,油炸, 煮沸, 微波而且燒烤。 (參考文獻 9988) 蠕蟲與軟體動物是延繩釣的優良誘餌。 (參考文獻 30578)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawns in the water column (Ref. 7471). Produces 400,000 to 2,000,000 eggs for each female (Ref. 51442). 东大西洋: 海岸的与欧洲西部与从白海到地中海的半咸淡水域与黑海.(参考文献 4705, 参考文献 51442) 在压舱水经过传送偶然地引入美国与加拿大中了。 (参考文献 1739) 亚洲: 伊朗.(参考文献 39702)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Amaoka, Kunio | 合作者

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 04 February 2009

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 实验的; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - 养殖: 产生; 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 周边海洋

工具

特别资料

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网络资源

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - 养殖: 产生; 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因组, 核苷酸 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 国家资料库 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公众的水族馆 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia: 转至, 搜寻 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.2 - 14.2, mean 10.2 °C (based on 862 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00698 - 0.00904), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.2 (2.9 - 6.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 18 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.22-0.3; tm=2-5; tmax=15; Fec= 2 million).
Prior r = 0.56, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.86, Based on 5 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 36.7 [16.8, 84.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.339 [0.179, 0.635] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.5 [14.3, 18.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.686 [0.284, 1.662] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.8 [7.2, 52.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.76 [1.78, 32.82] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.593 [0.371, 0.971] mg/100g (wet weight);