Platichthys flesus, European flounder : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758)

European flounder
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Platichthys flesus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Platichthys flesus (European flounder)
Platichthys flesus
Picture by Stergiou, K.I.

Классификация / Names народные названия | синонимы | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Platichthys: Greek, platys = flat + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range экология

; морской; пресноводный; солоноватоводный демерсальный; pH range: 7.5 - 8.2; катадромный (Ref. 51243); пределы глубины 1 - 100 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 5°C - 25°C (Ref. 13614); 72°N - 30°N, 32°W - 45°E (Ref. 54704)

распространение страны | регионы FAO | Ecosystems | места находок | Point map | интродукции | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: coastal and brackish waters of western Europe and from the White Sea to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 4705, Ref. 51442). Introduced into the USA and Canada accidentally through transport in ballast water (Ref. 1739). Asia: Iran (Ref. 39702).

Length at first maturity / Size / Вес / Возраст

Maturity: Lm 24.4, range 14 - 30 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL самец/пол неопределен; (Ref. 35388); common length : 50.0 cm TL самец/пол неопределен; (Ref. 30578); наибольший вес (опубликованные данные): 2.9 kg (Ref. 104349); наибольший возраст (опубликованны данные): 15 годы (Ref. 3944)

Краткое описание морфология | морфометрия

колючие лучи спинного плавника (общее число): 0; членистые (мягкие) лучи спинного плавника (общее число): 53-62; колючие лучи анального плавника 0; членистые (мягкие) лучи анального плавника: 37 - 46. Flatfish, its disc width less than half its length (Ref. 3137). Small mouth (Ref. 3137, Ref. 51442). Eyes mostly (70%) on right side (Ref. 3137, 51442), 79% of dextrally oriented flounder (n = 1076) in Bos, 2000 (Ref. 57574). Rough skin, especially along the lateral line and the basis of the dorsal and anal fin (Ref. 3137). Lateral line straight, slightly rounded over pectorals (Ref. 3137). Green-olive colored (Ref. 51442), the bottom side white (Ref. 3137). Irregular reddish spots on the eye side (Ref. 35388).

биология     глоссарий (например epibenthic)

Migratory fish, which is most of the year found in estuaries (Ref. 51442). Adults occur on mud and sand bottom in shallow water, at sea and brackish; often entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). During winter, adults retreat to deeper, warmer waters, where they spawn in spring (Ref. 30193). The growing larvae are moving to the coast (Ref. 51442). Larvae and early juveniles use selective tidal transport to migrate upstream rivers (Ref. 57575) using a range of triggers such as salinity, prey density and water temperature (Ref. 57573, 57574). Juveniles live in shallow coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 57574), which are also the summer feeding grounds for the adults (Ref. 30193). Juveniles of less than a year old feed on plankton and larvae of insects, juveniles of more than a year and adults feed on benthic fauna (Ref. 51442), including small fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 30193). Nocturnal and burrowing (Ref. 30193). Marketed fresh and frozen; can be steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Worms and mollusks are excellent baits for line fishing (Ref. 30578).

Life cycle and mating behavior половая зрелость | размножение | нерест | икра | Fecundity | личинки

Spawns in the water column (Ref. 7471). Produces 400,000 to 2,000,000 eggs for each female (Ref. 51442).

Основная ссылка Upload your references | ссылки | координатор : Amaoka, Kunio | соавторы

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

Статус Красного Списка МСОП (Ref. 123251)

  Не вызывающий беспокойства (LC) ; Date assessed: 04 February 2009

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Угроза для людей

  Harmless





Использование человеком

рыболовство: коммерческий; аквакультура (рыбоводство): экспериментальный; объект спортивного рыболовства: да
FAO(аквакультура (рыбоводство): production; рыболовство: production, Видовой профиль; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.2 - 14.2, mean 10.2 °C (based on 862 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00698 - 0.00904), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.2 (2.9 - 6.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 18 growth studies.
устойчивость к внешним воздействиям (Ref. 120179):  средний (среднего размера), минимальное время удвоения популяции 1.4-4.4 года (K=0.22-0.3; tm=2-5; tmax=15; Fec= 2 million).
Prior r = 0.56, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.86, Based on 5 stock assessments.
Уязвимость (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Категория цены (Ref. 80766):   Very high.