Platichthys flesus, European flounder : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus 1758)

European flounder
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Platichthys flesus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Platichthys flesus (European flounder)
Platichthys flesus
Picture by Stergiou, K.I.

رده بندی / Names اسامي عام | مترادف | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Platichthys: Greek, platys = flat + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range بوم شناسي

; دريايي; آب شيرين; لب شور نزديك كف زي; pH range: 7.5 - 8.2; دريا كوچ (Ref. 51243); تغييرات عمق 1 - 100 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 5°C - 25°C (Ref. 13614); 72°N - 30°N, 32°W - 45°E (Ref. 54704)

پراكنش كشورها | مناطق سازمان خوار و بار جهاني (FAO) | Ecosystems | ظهور | Point map | معرفي | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: coastal and brackish waters of western Europe and from the White Sea to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 4705, Ref. 51442). Introduced into the USA and Canada accidentally through transport in ballast water (Ref. 1739). Asia: Iran (Ref. 39702).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / سن

Maturity: Lm 24.4, range 14 - 30 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 35388); common length : 50.0 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 30578); بيشينه وزن گزارش شده: 2.9 kg (Ref. 104349); بيشينه سن گزارش شده: 15 سال ها (Ref. 3944)

توصيف مختصر ريخت شناسي | ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري

خارهاي باله پشتي (کل): 0; شعاع نرم باله پشتي (کل): 53-62; خارهاي باله مخرجي 0; شعاع نرم باله مخرجي: 37 - 46. Flatfish, its disc width less than half its length (Ref. 3137). Small mouth (Ref. 3137, Ref. 51442). Eyes mostly (70%) on right side (Ref. 3137, 51442), 79% of dextrally oriented flounder (n = 1076) in Bos, 2000 (Ref. 57574). Rough skin, especially along the lateral line and the basis of the dorsal and anal fin (Ref. 3137). Lateral line straight, slightly rounded over pectorals (Ref. 3137). Green-olive colored (Ref. 51442), the bottom side white (Ref. 3137). Irregular reddish spots on the eye side (Ref. 35388).

زيست شناسي     واژه نامه (بعنوان مثال epibenthic)

Migratory fish, which is most of the year found in estuaries (Ref. 51442). Adults occur on mud and sand bottom in shallow water, at sea and brackish; often entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). During winter, adults retreat to deeper, warmer waters, where they spawn in spring (Ref. 30193). The growing larvae are moving to the coast (Ref. 51442). Larvae and early juveniles use selective tidal transport to migrate upstream rivers (Ref. 57575) using a range of triggers such as salinity, prey density and water temperature (Ref. 57573, 57574). Juveniles live in shallow coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 57574), which are also the summer feeding grounds for the adults (Ref. 30193). Juveniles of less than a year old feed on plankton and larvae of insects, juveniles of more than a year and adults feed on benthic fauna (Ref. 51442), including small fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 30193). Nocturnal and burrowing (Ref. 30193). Marketed fresh and frozen; can be steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Worms and mollusks are excellent baits for line fishing (Ref. 30578).

Life cycle and mating behavior بلوغ | تولید مثل | تخم ریزی | تخم ها | Fecundity | توزاد ( لارو)

Spawns in the water column (Ref. 7471). Produces 400,000 to 2,000,000 eggs for each female (Ref. 51442).

مآخذ اصلی Upload your references | مراجع | هماهنگ كننده : Amaoka, Kunio | همكاران

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

وضعيت در فهرست قرمز IUCN (Ref. 123251)

  حداقل نگرانی (LC) ; Date assessed: 04 February 2009

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر برای انسان ها

  Harmless





استفاده انسانی

ماهي گيري – شيلات: تجاري; آبزي پروري: آزمايشي; ماهي ها ي سرگرم كننده: بله
FAO(آبزي پروري: production; ماهي گيري – شيلات: production, نمايه گونه; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

ابزارها

گزارش های ويژه

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منابع اينترنتي

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.2 - 14.2, mean 10.2 °C (based on 862 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00698 - 0.00904), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.2 (2.9 - 6.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 18 growth studies.
جهندگی (Ref. 120179):  متوسط, كمينه زمان لازم براي دو برابر شدن جمعيت 4/1 – 4/4 سال (K=0.22-0.3; tm=2-5; tmax=15; Fec= 2 million).
Prior r = 0.56, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.86, Based on 5 stock assessments.
آسيب پذيری (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
طبقه قيمت (Ref. 80766):   Very high.