Platichthys flesus, European flounder : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European flounder
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Platichthys flesus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Platichthys flesus (European flounder)
Platichthys flesus
Picture by Stergiou, K.I.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) 鰈形目 (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) 鰈科 (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Platichthys: Greek, platys = flat + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; pH range: 7.5 - 8.2; 降海洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - 100 m (Ref. 35388).   極; 5°C - 25°C (Ref. 13614); 72°N - 30°N, 32°W - 45°E (Ref. 54704)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: coastal and brackish waters of western Europe and from the White Sea to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 4705, Ref. 51442). Introduced into the USA and Canada accidentally through transport in ballast water (Ref. 1739). Asia: Iran (Ref. 39702).
東大西洋: 海岸的與歐洲西部與從白海到地中海的半鹹淡水域與黑海.(參考文獻 4705, 參考文獻 51442) 在壓艙水經過傳送偶然地引入美國與加拿大中了。 (參考文獻 1739) 亞洲: 伊朗.(參考文獻 39702)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 24.4, range 14 - 30 cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 35388); common length : 50.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 30578); 最大體重: 2.9 kg (Ref. 104349); 最大年齡: 15 年 (Ref. 3944)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 53-62; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 37 - 46. Flatfish, its disc width less than half its length (Ref. 3137). Small mouth (Ref. 3137, Ref. 51442). Eyes mostly (70%) on right side (Ref. 3137, 51442), 79% of dextrally oriented flounder (n = 1076) in Bos, 2000 (Ref. 57574). Rough skin, especially along the lateral line and the basis of the dorsal and anal fin (Ref. 3137). Lateral line straight, slightly rounded over pectorals (Ref. 3137). Green-olive colored (Ref. 51442), the bottom side white (Ref. 3137). Irregular reddish spots on the eye side (Ref. 35388).
比目魚 , 它的體盤寬度少於一半它的長度。 (參考文獻 3137) 小的嘴.(參考文獻 3137, 參考文獻 51442) 眼大部份 (70%) 在右邊上.(參考文獻 3137, 參考文獻 51442) 粗糙的皮膚, 尤其沿著側線與背鰭與臀鰭的基礎。 (參考文獻 3137) 側線直線, 略圓的胸鰭之上。 (參考文獻 3137) 綠色-橄欖色色彩 (參考文獻 51442), 底部側邊白色.(參考文獻 3137) 在眼側邊上的不規則的淡紅斑點.(參考文獻 35388)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Migratory fish, which is most of the year found in estuaries (Ref. 51442). Adults occur on mud and sand bottom in shallow water, at sea and brackish; often entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). During winter, adults retreat to deeper, warmer waters, where they spawn in spring (Ref. 30193). The growing larvae are moving to the coast (Ref. 51442). Larvae and early juveniles use selective tidal transport to migrate upstream rivers (Ref. 57575) using a range of triggers such as salinity, prey density and water temperature (Ref. 57573, 57574). Juveniles live in shallow coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 57574), which are also the summer feeding grounds for the adults (Ref. 30193). Juveniles of less than a year old feed on plankton and larvae of insects, juveniles of more than a year and adults feed on benthic fauna (Ref. 51442), including small fishes and invertebrates (Ref. 30193). Nocturnal and burrowing (Ref. 30193). Marketed fresh and frozen; can be steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Worms and mollusks are excellent baits for line fishing (Ref. 30578).

迴游的魚, 是發現於河口的全年大部分時間。 (參考文獻 51442) 在冬天期間,成魚對比較深又比較熱的水域撤退, 在那裡它們產卵於春天中.(參考文獻 30193) 成長的仔魚被移動到海岸。 (參考文獻 51442) 稚魚生活於沿岸淺水區與河口, 對於成魚也那是夏天覓食場.(參考文獻 30193) 稚魚少於一年之久吃昆蟲的浮游生物與仔魚, 超過一年的稚魚與成魚吃底棲的動物相 (參考文獻 51442), 包括小魚與無脊椎動物.(參考文獻 30193) 夜行的而且掘洞穴.(參考文獻 30193) 在市場上銷售生鮮和冷凍; 能被蒸,油炸, 煮沸, 微波而且燒烤。 (參考文獻 9988) 蠕蟲與軟體動物是延繩釣的優良誘餌。 (參考文獻 30578)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawns in the water column (Ref. 7471). Produces 400,000 to 2,000,000 eggs for each female (Ref. 51442). 東大西洋: 海岸的與歐洲西部與從白海到地中海的半鹹淡水域與黑海.(參考文獻 4705, 參考文獻 51442) 在壓艙水經過傳送偶然地引入美國與加拿大中了。 (參考文獻 1739) 亞洲: 伊朗.(參考文獻 39702)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Amaoka, Kunio | 合作者

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 123251)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 04 February 2009

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 實驗的; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO - 養殖: 產生; 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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網路資源

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 檢查 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: , | DiscoverLife | DORIS | ECOTOX | FAO - 養殖: 產生; 漁業: landings, 魚種描繪; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: 基因組, 核甘 | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | 國家資料庫 | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公眾的水族館 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | 樹狀分類階層 | Wikipedia: , 搜尋 | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 動物學的記錄

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 7.2 - 14.2, mean 10.2 °C (based on 862 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00698 - 0.00904), b=3.05 (3.01 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.3   ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.2 (2.9 - 6.1) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 18 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.22-0.3; tm=2-5; tmax=15; Fec= 2 million).
Prior r = 0.56, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.86, Based on 5 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 36.7 [16.8, 84.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.339 [0.179, 0.635] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.5 [14.3, 18.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.686 [0.284, 1.662] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.8 [7.2, 52.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 7.76 [1.78, 32.82] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.593 [0.371, 0.971] mg/100g (wet weight);