Sparus aurata, Gilthead seabream : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758

Gilthead seabream
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sparus aurata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Sparus aurata (Gilthead seabream)
Sparus aurata
Picture by Pillon, R.

رده بندی / Names اسامي عام | مترادف | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ماهبان شعاع باله > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Sparus: Latin, sparus = a fish with a golden head (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range بوم شناسي

; دريايي; لب شور نزديك كف زي; تغييرات عمق 1 - 150 m (Ref. 35388), usually 1 - 30 m (Ref. 54890).   Subtropical; 62°N - 15°N, 17°W - 43°E (Ref. 54890)

پراكنش كشورها | مناطق سازمان خوار و بار جهاني (FAO) | Ecosystems | ظهور | Point map | معرفي | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: British Isles, Strait of Gibraltar to Cape Verde and around the Canary Islands; also in the Mediterranean (Ref. 3688). Reported from the Black Sea (Ref. 12781). Reports from New Zealand refer to Pagrus auratus (Foster 1801) (Ref. 5755, 9258).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / سن

Maturity: Lm ?, range 33 - 40 cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 35388); common length : 35.0 cm SL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 4781); بيشينه وزن گزارش شده: 17.2 kg (Ref. 40637); بيشينه سن گزارش شده: 11 سال ها (Ref. 7253)

توصيف مختصر ريخت شناسي | ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري

خارهاي باله پشتي (کل): 11; شعاع نرم باله پشتي (کل): 13-14; خارهاي باله مخرجي 3; شعاع نرم باله مخرجي: 11 - 12. Body tall, with large black spot on the gill cover. Snout more than twice as long as the eye diameter (Ref. 35388).

زيست شناسي     واژه نامه (بعنوان مثال epibenthic)

Found in seagrass beds and sandy bottoms as well as in the surf zone commonly to depths of about 30 m, but adults may occur to 150 m depth. A sedentary fish, either solitary or in small aggregations. In spring, they often occur in brackish water coastal lagoons and estuaries. Mainly carnivorous, accessorily herbivorous (Ref. 3688). Feed on shellfish, including mussels and oysters. One of the most important fishes in saline and hypersaline aquaculture. Utilized fresh and eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior بلوغ | تولید مثل | تخم ریزی | تخم ها | Fecundity | توزاد ( لارو)

Males become females at about 3 years of age (Ref. 2715, 28504). Protandric hermaphrodite species, maturing first as male (during the first or second year of age) and after the second or third year of age, as female. Spawning happens generally from October to December, with sequenced spawning during the whole period. Incubation lasts about 2 days at 16-1 7°C. Larval stages last about 50 days at 1 7.5°C or about 43 days at 20°C. Egg size 0.9-1.1 mm, larval length at hatching 2.5-3.0 mm. Simultaneous hermaphroditism is suggested for this species (Ref. 103751).

مآخذ اصلی Upload your references | مراجع | هماهنگ كننده | همكاران

Bauchot, M.-L. and J.-C. Hureau, 1990. Sparidae. p. 790-812. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3688)

وضعيت در فهرست قرمز IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  حداقل نگرانی (LC) ; Date assessed: 19 August 2009

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر برای انسان ها

  Harmless





استفاده انسانی

ماهي گيري – شيلات: تجاري; آبزي پروري: تجاري; ماهي ها ي سرگرم كننده: بله
FAO(آبزي پروري: production, نمايه گونه; ماهي گيري – شيلات: production, نمايه گونه; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

ابزارها

گزارش های ويژه

بارگيری XML

منابع اينترنتي

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 12.1 - 21, mean 17.8 (based on 258 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.01124 - 0.01411), b=3.02 (2.99 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.7   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.2 (3.0 - 6.4) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 12 growth studies.
جهندگی (Ref. 120179):  متوسط, كمينه زمان لازم براي دو برابر شدن جمعيت 4/1 – 4/4 سال (K=0.28; tmax=11; tm=2-3).
Prior r = 0.57, 95% CL = 0.37 - 0.85, Based on 7 stock assessments.
آسيب پذيری (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
طبقه قيمت (Ref. 80766):   Very high.