Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate)
(Mullets) > Mugilidae
Etymology: Mugil: Latin, mugil, -ilis = grey mullet (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino; salmastro demersale; distribuzione batimetrica 10 - ? m (Ref. 5217). Tropical; 13°N - 9°S
Western Atlantic: West Indies and the Atlantic coasts of Central and South America to southeastern Brazil.
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 24 - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 3791); 35.0 cm TL (female); common length : 25.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 5217)
Mainly found in brackish estuaries but also in marine and hyper-saline waters (Ref. 5217). During reproduction, they gather in small groups at the mouth of coastal rivers and creeks. Reproduction occurs in the early part of the year. Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). Eggs which are rich in yolk are spawned by the millions. Upon hatching, juveniles move up to the swamps and coastal rivers over long distances, to seek for food and to protect themselves against predators (Ref. 35237). Marketed fresh or salted (Ref. 5217). The roe is marketed salt-pickled and dried and considered a delicacy (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Spawning seems to take place in small groups in river mouths. Females lay millions of relatively large eggs rich in yolk.
Thomson, J.M., 1978. Mugilidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 3. [pag. var.]. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3791)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
CollaboratoriImmaginiStamps, Coins Misc.SuoniCiguateraVelocitàModalità di nuotoArea branchialeOtolithsCervelliVista
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.7 - 28.1, mean 27.4 (based on 46 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00568 - 0.01533), b=2.92 (2.79 - 3.05), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 69278
): Alto, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione meno di 15 mesi (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .