Alosa immaculata, Pontic shad : fisheries

You can sponsor this page

Alosa immaculata Bennett, 1835

Pontic shad
Adicionar as suas observações no Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Alosa immaculata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Adicionar o seu Fotografias e vídeos
Pictures | Stamps, Coins Misc. | Imagem do Google
Image of Alosa immaculata (Pontic shad)
Alosa immaculata
Picture by Kutsarov, Y.

Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes(Género, Espécies) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Clupeidae (Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bennett.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; gua doce; estuarina; andromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 3 - 90 m (Ref. 10439). Temperate; 50°N - 41°N, 27°E - 44°E

Distribuição Países | Áreas FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Eurasia: Black Sea and Sea of Azov ( in sea and in the Don, Danube and other rivers, as much as 567 km up the Don and as far as Kiev on the Dneiper before the dam was built). Recognized sub-species (Ref. 683): Alosa pontica pontica in the Black Sea and rivers feeding it; Alosa pontica kessleri and Alosa pontica volgensis in the Caspian Sea. Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).

Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 23.4 cm
Max length : 39.0 cm SL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 188); Idade máx. registada: 7 anos (Ref. 10439)

Descrição breve Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Espinhos anais 0. Body fairly elongate, more `herring-like' than `shad-like'. Gill rakers rather thin, usually equal to or a little shorter than gill filaments. Teeth well developed in both jaws. Resembles A. caspia, which usually has more Gill rakers (50 to 180, much longer than gill filaments), poorly developed teeth and a deeper, `shad-like' body; A. maeotica has fewer Gill rakers (33 to 36).

Biologia     Glossário (ex. epibenthic)

Thai species is pelagic at sea, in deep water. It migrates to middle reaches of large rivers, spawning where current is strongest, close to the surface, often at 2-3 m depth in the main channel. Migrates upriver to spawn at 3 years, rarely earlier and only a few individuals spawn two seasons. It appears along the coast in March to April, enters rivers when temperatures reach about 6-9°C, between late March and late April; migration usually peaks in May. Spawning starts when temperature rises above 15°C in April to August; usually between 1 and 8 p.m. Pelagic eggs. Spent individuals return to the sea to feed. Juveniles inhabit floodplain and shallow riverine habitats, migrate to the sea or estuarine habitats during first summer; in autumn return to the sea until maturity. When at sea, it feeds on a wide variety of zooplankton (mainly crustaceans, (Crangon, Upogebia, Idothea, gammarids) and small fish (Engraulis, Clupeonella, Sprattus). Reduction of spawning sites and migration routes are caused by impoundment of main rivers. Heavy over fishing apparently reduced all populations during the first decade of the 20th century (Ref. 59043). Reaches a smaller size (30 cm SL, usually 14-18) in Don River; a smaller form reaches only 21 cm.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 59043).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Kottelat, M., 1997. European freshwater fishes. An heuristic checklist of the freshwater fishes of Europe (exclusive of former USSR), with an introduction for non-systematists and comments on nomenclature and conservation. Biologia, Bratislava, 52/Suppl. 5:1-271. (Ref. 13696)

Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 125652)

  Vulnerável, ver o Livro Vermelho da IUCN (VU) (B2ab(v)); Date assessed: 01 January 2008


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para o homem


Utilização humana

Pescarias: pouco comercial
FAO - pescarias: landings; Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Mais informação

Nomes comuns
Agregação para desova
Desenvolvimento dos ovos
Frequência de comprimento
Dinâmica larvar
Perfil para aquacultura
Frequência dos alelos
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Tipo de natação
Área branquial
Outras referências


Relatórios especiais

Descarregue XML

Fontes da internet

AFORO (otoliths) | Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Consultar FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: Género, Espécies | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - pescarias: landings; Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genoma, nucleotídeo | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Bases de dados nacionais | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Árvore da vida | Wikipedia: ir para, procurar | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Registo zoológico

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 8.6 - 14.8, mean 13.3 °C (based on 68 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00774 - 0.02245), b=2.99 (2.85 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  Médio, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.32; tm=2; tmax=9).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649):  High to very high vulnerability (67 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   High.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 28.5 [8.9, 124.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.681 [0.233, 1.707] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [16.2, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 2.93 [1.25, 6.97] g/100g ; Selenium = 14.6 [5.1, 35.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 22 [4, 94] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.466 [0.260, 0.976] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.