Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Myliobatidae
(Eagle and manta rays)
Etymology: Myliobatis: Greek, mylo = mill + Greek, + Greek, batis,-idos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 1 - 300 m (Ref. 4440), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 60°N - 36°S, 32°W - 58°E
Eastern Atlantic: Madeira, Morocco and the Canary Islands north to the western coasts of Ireland and British Isles and the southwestern North Sea, south to Natal, South Africa. Also throughout the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 60 - ? cm
Max length : 183 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 4440); max. published weight: 14.5 kg (Ref. 40637)
A plain eagleray with a short, rounded snout; disc with broadly angular corners, and upper or lower jaw usually with 7 rows of plate-like teeth (Ref. 5578). Brown or blackish dorsally, white ventrally (Ref. 5578). No caudal fin (Ref. 5578).
Found in shallow lagoons (Ref. 3965), bays and estuaries; also offshore down to at least 95 m (Ref. 5578). Often found in groups (Ref. 5578). Feeds on benthic crustaceans, mollusks and fish. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Gestation period of 6-8 months, the females give birth to 3-7 young (Ref. 35388). Caught by shore and ski-boat anglers, usually released after capture (Ref. 5578). Flesh is highly esteemed (Ref. 3965).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and B. Séret, 1990. Myliobatididae. p. 67-70. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4440)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.7 - 19.8, mean 15.2 °C (based on 318 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00121 - 0.01252), b=3.08 (2.83 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.54 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 27.9 [3.0, 162.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.08 [0.19, 4.06] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [17.1, 22.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.387 [0.124, 1.172] g/100g ; Selenium = 27.6 [5.2, 125.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.34 [1.27, 31.23] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.735 [0.186, 3.006] mg/100g (wet weight);