Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 9626). Subtropical; 31°N - 30°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Bahamas, Florida (USA), and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.2 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9626); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3798)
soft rays: 8. Silvery, the edges of the scales narrowly brown, the centers on upper half of body with a spot which may vary in color from yellow through bronze to dark brown (forming oblique dotted lines following scale rows) (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits shallow coastal reefs, the young on seagrass beds, adults in schools in relatively open areas (Ref. 9710). Rare at oceanic islands (Ref. 9710). Feeds at night on mollusks and small fishes (Ref. 9710). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3798).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.6 - 28.2, mean 27.4 °C (based on 724 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01318 (0.00828 - 0.02098), b=3.01 (2.88 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .