Family Pholidae - Gunnels
  Order
:
  Class
:
Actinopterygii
No. in FishBase
:
Genera : 4 | Species : 15 Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
  Environment
:
Fresh : No | Brackish : No | Marine : Yes
  Division
:
Marine
  Aquarium
:
none
  First Fossil Record
:
     
  Remark
:
Distribution: North Atlantic, Arctic and North Pacific. Body elongate and compressed. One dorsal fin, about two times longer than anal fin and extending from head to caudal fin. Dorsal fin with 73-100 stiff spines, anal fin with 1-3 spines in front of 32-53 soft rays; both fins reaching or confluent with base of caudal fin. Caudal fin rounded. Anal fin long, but shorter relative to body length than in pricklebacks. Pectoral fins absent in some gunnel species, minute or very small in others. Pelvic fins rudimentary, consisting of 1 spine and 1 ray; or absent, including pelvic girdle. No fleshy cirri on head or body. One pair of nostrils. Body covered with tiny, inconspicuous, mucus-covered cycloid scales. Mechanosensory canals of head opening through pores typically constant in number: nasal 2, occipital 3, interorbital 1, postorbital 6, suborbital 6, preopercular 5, and mandibular 4. Body lateral line represented by mediolateral row of superficial neuromasts, generally not discernible in preserved material. Teeth small and conical. Gill membranes broadly joined and free from the isthmus. Branchiostegal rays 5 or 6. Pyloric caeca absent. Ribs absent. Abdominal vertebrae with parapophyses united, forming hemal arches. Vertebrae 80-105. Coloration cryptic, from yellow and brown to red or green, often with spots, blotches, and bands. Attains total length of about 46 cm. Mainly inhabits rocky intertidal and shallow subtidal areas, especially among kelp and other macroalgae; often found under rocks or in tide pools in the intertidal zone. Feeds on small crustaceans and mollusks.
  Etymology
:
Greek, pholis, -idos = scale ( Ref. 45335).
  Reproductive guild
:
guarders
  Typical activity level
:
normal
  Main Ref
:
  Coordinator
:
  Deep Fin Classification
:
Osteichthyes | Actinopterygii | Actinopteri | Neopterygii | Teleostei | Osteoglossocephalai | Clupeocephala | Euteleosteomorpha | Neoteleostei | Eurypterygia | Ctenosquamata | Acanthomorphata | Acanthopterygii | Percomorphaceae | Eupercaria | | | Perciformes | Cottoidei | Zoarcales | Pholidae

Show species images | Show valid names | Nominal species list | Identification keys | CAS specimen photos | References

 
Ref.
[ e.g. 9948]
Glossary
[ e.g. cephalopods]


Species/Synonymy list for the family Pholidae as currently in FishBase

Important recommendation:

The list below must not be used as an authority reference synonymy list like those found in scientific published revisions, which must be the source to be used and cited eventually when they exist.

Rather, it reflects the current content of FishBase, and the progress with respect to synchronization with the Catalog of Fishes. However, we think it can be useful for users to assess the quality of information in FishBase, to start new work on the family, or to cross-check with other lists.

But we appreciate to be cited in publications when this list has been of any working value. In particular, for published scientific, we suggest then to cite it in the Material and Method section as a useful tool to conduct the research, but again, not as a taxonomic or nomenclatural authority reference.

Unless it is explicitly precised, the list is not complete, please search all original names published for the family in the Catalog of Fishes (genera, species), including those with uncertain or unknown status, that are not included in FishBase when they are not attached to a valid species.

This list uses some data from Catalog of Fishes (not shown but used to sort names).

In the column CofF, the digit indicates the status of synchronization with CofF: 0: Not checked; 1: Same status;   2: Different status;   3: Other combination;   4: Synonym in CofF;   5: Species/Subspecies issue;   6: Synonym of another species in CofF;   7: Not in CofF;   8: Should not be in CofF. The CofF version currently used is the one published on 23-07-2014 (Ref. 97102).

The list ordered as follows:

Please send comments and corrections if you detect errors or missing names.

Show all | Show only accepted name | Show only accepted and original names
Scientifc name Status Senior/Junior synonym Combination CofF
Pholis gunnellus (Linnaeus, 1758)
acceptedseniornew
Blennius gunnellus Linnaeus, 1758
synonymseniororiginal2
Centronotus gunnellus (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
! Pholis gunellus (Linnaeus, 1758)
synonymseniornew
Ophidion imberbe Linnaeus, 1758
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Blennius europaeus Olafsen, 1772
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Muraenoides sujef Lacepède, 1800
synonymjuniororiginal2
Ophidium fulvescens Rafinesque, 1810
synonymjuniororiginal2
Ophidium mucronatum Mitchill, 1815
synonymjuniororiginal2
Gunnellus vulgaris Fleming, 1828
synonymjuniororiginal2
Muraenoides guttata Yarrell, 1836
ambiguousotheroriginal2
Gunnellus affinis Reinhardt, 1837
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Gunnellus ingens Storer, 1850
synonymjuniororiginal2
Pholis fasciata (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
acceptedseniornew
Centronotus fasciatus Bloch & Schneider, 1801
synonymseniororiginal2
Pholis fasciatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
synonymseniornew
Blennius taenia Pallas, 1814
synonymjuniororiginal2
Gunnellus groenlandicus Reinhardt, 1830
synonymjuniororiginal2
Gunnellus muraenoides Valenciennes, 1839
ambiguousotheroriginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Pholis gilli Evermann & Goldsborough, 1907
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal1
Pholis crassispina (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845)
acceptedseniornew
Gunellus crassispina Temminck & Schlegel, 1845
synonymseniororiginal2
Enedrias crassispina (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845)
synonymseniornew
Enedrias nebulosa (non Temminck & Schlegel, 1845)
misappliedmisappliedmisapplied
Pholis nebulosa (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845)
acceptedseniornew
Gunnellus nebulosus Temminck & Schlegel, 1845
synonymseniororiginal2
Enedrias nebulosus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845)
synonymseniornew
synonymjuniororiginal2
Pholis ornata (Girard, 1854)
acceptedseniornew
Gunellus ornatus Girard, 1854
synonymseniororiginal2
Pholis ornatus (Girard, 1854)
synonymseniornew
Pholis picta (Kner, 1868)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
Pholis pictus (Kner, 1868)
synonymseniornew
Pholis laeta (Cope, 1873)
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
Allopholis laeta (Cope, 1873)
synonymseniornew
Pholis ornatus (non Girard, 1854)
misappliedmisappliednew
Pholis schultzi Schultz, 1931
acceptedseniororiginal2
Allopholis schultzi (Schultz, 1931)
synonymseniornew
Pholis fangi (Wang & Wang, 1935)
acceptedseniornew
Enedrias fangi Wang & Wang, 1935
synonymseniororiginal2
Pholis clemensi Rosenblatt, 1964
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pholis nea Peden & Hughes, 1984
acceptedseniororiginal2
Pholis ornata nea Peden & Hughes, 1984
synonymseniorchange in rank
Pholis ornata (non Girard, 1854)
misappliedmisappliednew
acceptedseniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
synonymjuniororiginal2
Apodichthys univittatus Lockington, 1881
synonymjuniororiginal2
Apodichthys fucorum Jordan & Gilbert, 1880
acceptedseniororiginal1
Xererpes fucorum (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880)
synonymseniornew
acceptedseniornew
synonymseniororiginal2
Pholis dolichogaster (Pallas, 1814)
synonymseniornew
synonymseniornew
Centronotus taczanowskii Steindachner, 1881
synonymjuniororiginal2
! Rhodimenichthys taczanowskii (Steindachner, 1881)
synonymjuniornew
Ulvicola sanctaerosae Gilbert & Starks, 1897
acceptedseniororiginal1
Apodichthys sanctaerosae (Gilbert & Starks, 1897)
synonymseniornew
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