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Hippocampus fuscus  Rüppell, 1838

Sea pony
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Image of Hippocampus fuscus (Sea pony)
Hippocampus fuscus
Female picture by Lourie, S.A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes (Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae (Pipefishes and seahorses) > Hippocampinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Rüppell.

Issue
This species is a synonym of Hippocampus kuda Weber, 1913 according to Lourie et al., 2016 (Ref. 115213). This species record will be removed.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 10 m (Ref. 52034).   Tropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indian Ocean: Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, and Sri Lanka. Records from South Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius and Réunion are questionable. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 8.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.4 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 47822)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 14-17.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Length type refers to height (= TL - head length). Occurs in eelgrass beds (Zostera sp.) in lagoons. Used in India for traditional medicines. Diurnal. Adults pair-bond and greet on daily basis in the laboratory (Ref. 30915). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Adults pair-bond and greet on a daily basis in the laboratory (Ref. 35709). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and genetic (Ref. 52884). Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205). Gestation period is about 14 days depending on temperature (Ref. 30915). Clutch size is about 30-140 (from dropped clutches) (Ref. 30915).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

More information

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Internet sources

Alien/Invasive Species database | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Public aquariums | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 28.2 (based on 1106 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00165 - 0.01101), b=3.00 (2.77 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=0.3-0.4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.