Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335); stellulata: From the Latin stellula meaning small star - scales (Ref. 6885).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 18 - 982 m (Ref. 112456), usually 70 - 150 m (Ref. 112456). Temperate; 4°C - 12°C (Ref. 112456); 51°N - 30°N, 129°W - 115°W (Ref. 112456)
North Pacific: Bering Sea to northern Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 0. A row of strong, sharp spines along the mid-dorsal line from a point behind the eyes by less than the interorbital width to the first dorsal fin and continued beyond it with a single spine between the two dorsal fins; large spines on the shoulder girdle; a row of small spines on the inner edge of the orbit; a cluster of moderate spines along the edge of the pectoral fin from its tip to the snout, large spines in males (Ref. 6885). Dorsal fins small and well back on tail; caudal fin very small; anal fin absent; pectorals broad, attached to snout and incorporated with body; pelvic fins large and deeply notched (Ref. 6885). A horizontal fleshy ridge from either side of ventral surface of tail, more prominent posteriorly (Ref. 6885). Grayish brown, numerous dark spots of various sizes scattered on body, a weakly marked eye spot frequently present at base of pectoral fins (Ref. 6885).
Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 7.1-7.8 cm long and 5.5-7.0 cm wide (Ref. 41300).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.5 - 8.3, mean 5.7 (based on 180 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00120 - 0.00632), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.64 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Prior r = 0.12, 2 SD range = 0.02 - 0.66, log(r) = -2.12, SD log(r) = 0.85, Based on: 1 K, 1 tmax, 1 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .