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Synodontis schall  (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

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Synodontis schall
Picture by Geremew, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes (Catfish) > Mochokidae (Squeakers or upside-down catfishes)
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: ? - 30; potamodromous (Ref. 51243).   Tropical; 22°C - 28°C (Ref. 2060)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Africa: Nile basin, Abaia, Stephanie, Rudolf Lake, Tana?, Uebi Guiba (Uebi Shebeli)(Ref. 3202). In West Africa found practically in all basins (except for the coastal basins of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia), including the Senegal, Gambia, Niger, Volta and Chad basins (Ref. 57223). Also in the Cross basin in Nigeria (Ref. 81251).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 21.0, range 12 - 17 cm
Max length : 37.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57223); max. published weight: 500.00 g (Ref. 3799); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 72479)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 1; Anal spines: 0. Diagnosis: gill slits not extending ventrally beyond pectoral-fin insertions (Ref. 57223). Post-orbital length at least 60% of snout length (Ref. 57223, 81251). Maxillary barbels longer than head (Ref. 57223, 81251) but not reaching to pelvic fins (Ref. 57223), unbranched and without tubercles or distinct basal membrane (Ref. 57223, 81251). Outer mandibular barbels with few, rather short and simple ramifications (Ref. 57223, 81251). Branches of inner mandibular barbels few, short, simple and tuberculate (Ref. 57223, 81251), at least the anterior ones (Ref. 57223). Mandibular teeth moderately developed (Ref. 57223), movable (Ref. 81251), numbering 24-39 (Ref. 57223, 81251). Entire margin of opercle smooth (Ref. 81251). Dorsal- and pectoral-fin spines straight (Ref. 57223). Pectoral spines strongly serrated with twice the number of serrations along anterior edge than posterior edge (Ref. 81251), denticulations weaker on outer than on inner margin (Ref. 57223). Dorsal spine prolonged by a short filament (Ref. 81251), smooth anteriorly (Ref. 57223, 81251) except for a few apical denticles (Ref. 57223), and few serrations along posterior edge (Ref. 81251). However, large individuals may also have a weak denticulation on lower half of spine (Ref. 57223). Humeral process pointed and granulose, slightly keeled ventrally (Ref. 57223, 81251). Adipose fin well developed (Ref. 57223, 81251), high, rather close to rayed dorsal fin (Ref. 57223). Body uniformly coloured or spotted body brownish dorsally, whitish ventrally (juveniles with white markings and black spots); caudal fin without single dark patch at base of each fin lobe (Ref. 81251). Maxillary barbels white or beige; outer margins of caudal-fin lobes more or less dark (Ref. 57223).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Maximum TL was recorded at 47.0 cm (Ref. 57223). Omnivore, feeds on insect nymph, larvae, eggs and detritus (Ref. 13868). Also feeds on fish, bivalves in the Sudd and snails in Gezira irrigation canals. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Breeding occurs during the flood season (Ref. 28714). Utilized for human consumption.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Paugy, D. and T.R. Roberts, 2003. Mochokidae. p. 195-268 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57223)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Larval dynamics
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.01173 - 0.01953), b=2.95 (2.89 - 3.01), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  2.9   ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.10-0.54; tmax=3; Fec=64,273).
Prior r = 0.52, 2 SD range = 0.24 - 1.11, log(r) = -0.65, SD log(r) = 0.38, Based on: 1 M, 3 K, 2 tgen, 1 tmax, 4 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (21 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.