Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 80 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical; 35°N - 35°S, 24°E - 135°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and the east coast of Africa to the Hawaiian Islands and Samoa, north to Japan (Ref. 559), south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819) and northern Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
Adults inhabit mangroves and coastal bays. They form schools (Ref. 4887), or singly (Ref. 48635). Pelagic (Ref. 58302). Mainly diurnal. They feed on cephalopods, crustaceans and planktonic invertebrates such as copepods (Ref. 5213, 90102). Fast swimming in midwater in pursuit of zooplankton (Ref. 48635).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.8 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 2048 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.01244 - 0.01604), b=2.96 (2.93 - 2.99), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.58-1.00; Fec=63,000-161,000 (batch fecundity)).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .