Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 5 - 30 m (Ref. 37816). Tropical; 30°N - 27°S, 70°E - 154°E
Indo-West Pacific: Maldives (Ref. 30829) and Sri Lanka to the Ryukyu Islands, Papua New Guinea, and northeast Australia. Reported from Viet Nam but this is probably a misidentification (Ref. 2682).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 20 cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
soft rays: 8. Body color is dusky whitish, becoming lighter below, with four or six orange stripes. The posterior edges of the operculum and preoperculum are bright red. The head is brown or tan, sometimes with a red spot on the lower front edge of the eye. The pectoral fin is orangish; the pelvic, anal and most of the dorsal fin is whitish. The edge of the dorsal and caudal fin is reddish (Ref. 2295).
Inhabits sandy and soft bottoms and seagrass beds in inshore bays, lagoons and areas adjacent to reefs. Usually in small groups (Ref. 48635). Feeds on crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, polychaetes and small fishes. Juveniles commonly visit the tidal reef flats to feed when the water is high (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.5 - 29.3, mean 28.7 (based on 2098 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.01124 - 0.03231), b=3.04 (2.89 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.43 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.4-0.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .